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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
primary function of erythrocytes
transport respiratory gases
2 gases transported by erythrocytes
oxygen and carbon dioxide
IRON OF THE HEME + O2...BRIGHT RED
oxyhemoglobin
alpha and beta chains of hemobglobin + carbon dioxide
carbaminohemoglobin
heme without oxygen..dark red
deoxyhemoglobin
RBCs of an embryo or fetus contain different form of hemoglobin known as what?
fetal hemoglobin
drugs that stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin administered to adults, individuals with sickle-cell anemia, and thalassemia
Hydroxdyurea or Butyrate
complete cells with nucleus and organelles
leucocytes
how do leukocytes move?
by amoeboid motion
leukocytes slip out of capillaries through a process called
emigration or diapedesis
when activated, leukocytes adhere to vessel walls in a process called?
margination
attraction to specific chemical stimuli which guides the cells to invading pathogens, damaged tissues and other active WBCs
positive chemotaxis
what leukocytes are capable of phagocytosis?
monocytes,eosinophils, and neutrophils [MEN]
sometimes called microphages
neutrophils and eosinophils
macrophages are monocytes that have done what
moved out of the bloodstream and have become actively phagocytic
life span of leukocytes
decades
type of leukocytes are based on what
appearance after staining
what are 2 type of leukocytes
granulocytes and agranulocytes
three granulocytes
basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils [BEN]
sac-like structures that absorb stain; vessicles and lysozymes
granules
half of the WBCs
neutrohils
sometimes called polymorpho nuclear
neutrophils
how many lobes in neutrophils
2-5
neutrophiles are highly mobile and generally first to do what
arrive at site of injury
cytoplasmic granules stained quite well with Wright's stain
granulocytes
our body's bacterial slayers
neutrophils
increase capillary permeability which partly explains local inflammation and restricting the spread of injury and infection
prostaglandins
while actively engaged in attacking bacteria, a neutrophil releases what?
prostaglandins and leukotrienes
hormones that attract phagocytes and help coordinate the immune system
LEUKOTRIENES
granules stain darkly with eosin and acidophils
eosinophils
bilobed leucocyte, about the size of neutrophil, that attacks objects coatd with antibodies
eosinophils
antibody complexes involved in allergies by phagocytosis that are destroyed by eosinophils
antigen
rarest WBC
basophils
have numerous granules that stain darkly with various dyes; typically u or s shaped nucleus
basophils
inflammatory chemicals that act as vasodilator and attract other WBCs to the inflamed site
histamine
anticoagulant
heparin
few if any stained granulocytes
agranulocytes
2nd most numerous WBC
lymphocytes
spherical nucleus that occupies most of the cell's volume
lymphocytes
fetal debelopment of bone marrow releases stem cells into blood and some colonize at thymus...what stimulates them to mature?
thymosin
thymus dependent phagocytes against virus-infected cells and tumor cells
T-lymphocytes
what are t-lymphocytes responsible for?
cell-mediated immunity
give rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies
b lymphocytes
responsible for humoral immunity and production of antibodies
b lymphocytes
cells responsible for immune surveillance, destruction of abnormal tissue cells, and important in prevention of cancer
natural killer cells
largest WBC, u-shaped nucleus
monocyte
crucial in defense from viruses and certain bacteria
monocyte
active phgagocytes with chronic infections such as TB
monocytes
when monocytes leave the blood vessels, they become what
macrophages
produce cytoxic compounds made by natural killer cells to kill normal cells
perforins
active macrophages secrete substances that ?
attract and stimulate neutrophils, monocytes, and other phagocytic cells
most WBCs are in ?
connective tissue proper or organs of lymphatic system
indicates inadequate number of WBCs
leukopenia
refers to excessive WBCs
leukocytosis
WBCs not only protect against foreign matter, they also what?
protect us from damaged tissues
fragments of megakaryocytes
platelets
what are megakaryocytes
framents of giant cells
plateslets serve as what for other vertebrates other than mammals
thrombocytes
abnormally low platelet count
thrombocytopenia
platelet counts that may exceed 1,000,000/microliter
thrombocytosis
2 main functions of platelets
close breaks in vessels and release serotonin
how do platelets close damaged vessels
stick to the broken surfaces
serotonin is released in the presence of what?
broken surfaces
what does serotonin do
it's a chemical that causes contraction of vessels
chemical that causes contraction of vessels
serotonin
what is vital when blood vessels are damaged
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
hemostasis
3 phases of hemostasis
vascular phase, platelet phase coagulation phase
in which phase is serotonin produced
platelet phase
what happens in the vascular phase
in response to injury, there is a vascular spasm that constricts vessel
what happens in the platelet phase
within 15 sec. of injury, there is platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and release of serotonin
what's platelet adhesion
platelets adhere to broken surface of vessel, granules breakdown, and ADP like chemicals are released
what does release of ADP in platelet adhesion do
attracts more platelet
what's platelet aggregation
a "platelet plug"; platelets sticking together
what does Thromboxane do
promotes platelet aggregation
serotonin is produced by platelets serves what function
stimulates smooth muscle contraction at injury site
purpose of serotonin as neurotransmitter
affects emotion and attention
serotonin's effect if low concentration
depression
what happens in the coagulation phase; when does it happen
blod transforms from liquid to gel 30 sec. or more after damage
factors that promote coagulation
procoagulants
what does the procoagulant reaction depend on
presence of Ca++ acting as enzymes
factors that inhibit coagulation
anticoagulants
stoppage of bleeding vitally important when blood vessels are damaged
hemostasis
3 phases of hemostasis
vascular, platelet, coagulation
what are 3 events of platelet phase
platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation, and serotonin production