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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Pericardium
Smooth membrane that surrounds the heart
Name given to the two upper cavities of the heart
Atrium
Name given to the two lower cavities of the heart
Ventricle
Myocardium
Muscular tissue of the heart
Sinuatrial Node
Pacemaker; initiates the heart beat
Cardiac Output
Amount of blood ejected from one ventricle in one minute
Systole
Phase of the cardiac cycle in which contraction occurs
Atrioventricular Node
Nerve tissue lying between the atria and ventricle that forms part of the conduction system of the heart
Semilunar valve
Name given to the aortic and pulmonary valves; comprise three semilunar shaped segments
Bundle of His
Specialised bundle of nerve tissue found in the septum of the heart
End diastolic volume
Volume of blood in the ventricles just before systole
Arteries
Vessels which carry blood away from the heart
Veins
Vessels that carry blood toward the heart
Capillaries
Join the end of the arteries to the starting point of the veins
Haemoglobin
Substance that binds to oxygen in the red blood cells of arterial blood
Erthrocytes
Red blood cells; carry oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide away from the tissues
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of the blood vessels which results in reduced blood flow to a particular part of the body
Tunica media
Middle layer of walls of arteries and veins. Comprises smooth muscle and elastic fibres. Is thicker in arteries that in veins.
3 mechanisms of venous return
1. Muscular pump
2. Respiratory pump
3. Valves
Vascular shunt
Redistribution of blood during exercise such that more goes to the skeletal muscle and less to other organs. Involves vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying the non-skeletal muscle, vasodilation of arterioles supplying skeletal muscle, and openinng of the precapillary sphincters in the capillary networks supplying skeletal muscle.
Haemoglobin has the highest affinity for which of the following?

Oxygen
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide (a constituent of cigarette smoke)
Effect of an acute exercise bout on systolic BP?
Systolic BP tends to increase during acute exercise (an increase in cardiac output offsets the vasodilation occuring in skeletal muscle)