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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 usual defense mechanisms of the cardiovasc system?
1. Humoral immunity
2. Cellular immunity
What is the presence of bacteria in blood called?
What should be the interpretation of bacteria in blood?
-Maybe transient
-May be indicative of a disease elsewhere in the body.
What is Septicemia?
What usually causes it?
The presence of bacteria or their products causing harm to the host.
-Usually from GNB endotoxin.
What symptoms result in septicemia?
What 3 conditions is septicemia usually secondary to?
Fever, decreased bp, confusion, and shock.
-UTI, lung, or wound infection.
What are the 4 types of cardiovasc infections usually presenting with a blood spec?
1. Bacteremia
2. Septicemia
3. Endocarditis
4. Myocarditis.
What IS endocarditis
bacterial colonization of the heart valves.
What are the types of endocarditis, and what charactizes them?
Subacute - normal flora cause it, when spilled into the blood.
Acute - Pathogenic organisms traveled here from an infection elsewhere.
What factors predispose one to endocarditis?
1. Damaged heart valves from rheumatic fever or congenital.
2. Prosthetic heart valves.
What are symptoms of endocarditis?
Fever, angina, heart murmur, blood clots and petechiae.
What is myocarditis?
What is the most common cause?
How is it diagnosed?
Infection of heart muscle; cause is often Coxsackievirus.
-Diagnosed clinically.
What type of schedule has to be followed for blood collections?
-If transient bacteremia, determine fever pattern and draw 30-45 min before next spike.
How should blood be collected?
2-3 times over a day; can draw 2 sets from 2 different sites on a patient.
What is the procedure for blood specimen collection?
1. Prep the skin with 70% alcohol and tincture of iodine.
2. Avoid skin contaminants.
How much blood needs to be collected, and why?
40 mL - to allow for higher concentration in the blood culture bottles, AND need to inoculate 2 dfnt broth types.
What does the broth for a blood culture bottle contain?
SPS anticoagulant - Sodium polyanethol sulfonate; to prevent bugs from getting trapped in clots.
How are blood culture bottles analysed?
1. Examination macroscopic (old)
2. Blind subculture concept
3. Automated systems
4. Identification
What are 3 types of automated blood culture systems?
1. Isolator - centrifuges to conc. blood/inoculates a plate.
2. Septi-Chek - has solid media and broth components.
3. Signal System - detects CO2 release
What is the blind subculture concept?
Just inoculating a plate from the blood culture bottle to see if anything grows - can often have contamination though.
What are blood culture automated detection systems for?
ONLY for detection of growth - not for identification!
What are 3 types of Automated Blood culture detection systems?
1. Bactec
2. BactT/Alert
3. ESP
What is the Bactec principle?
Fluorescence detection and laser detection - if growth, CO2 diffuses and flouresces/signals growth.
What is the BacT/Alert principle?
Colorimetric CO2 detection - pH changes to acidic in CO2, causes a color change.
What is the ESP principle?
Detection of a change in head space pressure above the broth - not only CO2, but any gas.
How long should a blood culture be incubated before calling neg normally? If endocarditis?
Normal: 5-7 days.

Endocarditis: 2 weeks.
What microorganisms take more than 5 days to grow?
HACEK group
What is the HACEK group?
Cardiobacterium hominis
Eikenella corrodens
What is normal flora in the cardiovascular system?
What is pathogenic in the Cardiovasc system?