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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
double sac of serous membrane enclosing the heart
pericardium
two layers of pericardium
epicardium, or visceral pericardium, and parietal pericardium
inflammation of pericardium
pericarditis
three layers of heart walls
epicardium, myocardium,and endocardium
heart wall layer made up of thick bundles of cariac muscle
myocardium
thin sheet of endothelium lining heart chambers
endocardium
name the four chambers of the heart
left and right atrium, and left and right ventricle
tissue dividing left and right ventricle
interventricular septum
tissue dividing left and right atrium
interatrial septum
circulation of blood between heart and lungs
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood throughout body tissues
systemic circulation
valves that prevent backflow into atria when ventricles contract
atrioventricular (AV) valves
The left AV valve is a ______.
bicuspid valve
The right AV valve is a ______ .
tricuspid valve
chordae tendineae
tiny white cords that anchor AV valve cusps to walls of ventricles
how do the AV valves prevent backflow into the atria?
as ventricles contract, intraventricular pressure rises, causing valve flaps to be forced upwards, closing the flaps
valves that prevent arterial blood from re-entering heart
semilunar valves
how do semilunar valves protect the heart?
blood rushing out of heart pushes cusps against walls of arteries; when intraventricular pressure falls, blood fills cusps, forcing them closed
The sequence of events comprising one complete contraction and relaxation of the heart chambers is termed
cardiac cycle
During the period of atrial filling _____ are open.
semilunar valves
Blood returning from the lungs enters the _____ via _____.
left atrium, pulmonary veins
The amount of blood ejected from each ventricle during systole
stroke volume
What is Starling's Law of the Heart?
The more the cardiac cells are stretched, the stronger the subsequent contraction
About how many quarts does the heart pump a day?
6000 quarts
What are the two controlling systems of the heart?
the intrinsic conduction (or nodal) system, and the autonomic nervous system
crescent-shaped node in right atrium
sinoatrial (SA) node
node at the junction of atria and ventricles
atrioventricular (AV) node
What part of the nodal system is commonly called the pacemaker?
sinoatrial (SA) node
rapid, uncontrolled shuddering of heart muscle
fibrillation
rapid heart rate
tachycardia
substantially slower than normal heart rate
bradycardia
innermost layer of a blood vessel
tunica interna
sheet of elastic tissue within tunica media
elastic laminae
outermost layer of a blood vessel
tunica externa
arterial branches of the ascending aorta
right and left coronary arteries
the brachiocephalic artery splits into the _______ and the _____.
r.common carotid artery, r.subclavian artery
The _____ is the second branch off the aortic arch. It divides, forming the ____, and the _____.
left common carotid artery, l.external carotid, l. internal carotid
The ___ supplies the spleen.
splenic artery
The ___ supplies the stomach.
gastric artery
The ___ supplies the liver.
common hepatic artery
The ___ supplies the small intestine.
superior mesenteric artery
The ___ supply the kidneys
renal arteries
The ___ supply the gonads.
gonadal arteries
The ___ supply the heavy muscles of the truck and abdomen.
lumbar arteries
The ___ supplies the lower half of the small intestine.
inferior mesenteric artery
final branches of the abdominal aorta
common iliac arteries
What are the two systems that control the heart?
nervous system and intrisic conduction (nodal) system
heart's "pacemaker
sinoatrial node
node at the junction of the atria and ventricles
atrioventricular node
What is the signal pathway of the nodal system?
SA node-> AV node-> AV bundles-> bundle branches-> Purkinje fibers
rapid, uncontrolled shuddering of heart muscle
fibrillation
rapid heart rate
tachycardia
slow heart rate
bradycardia
systole
heart contraction
diastole
heart relaxation
what are the lub, dup sounds during each cariac cycle?
lub-closing of AV valves
dup-semilunar valves closing