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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angina pectoris
pain and pressure in the chest caused by a lack of proper blood flow and oxygenation to the heart muscle
Arrhythmia
Irregular heartbeats resulting from a malfunction in the conduction system
Arteriosclerosis
A disease of the arterial vessels resulting from thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walss
artherosclerosis
a form of artheriosclerosis resulting from cholsterol-lipid calcium deposits in the walls of the arteries
Conjestive heart failure (CHF)
a condition in whic the heart is unable to pum the amounts of blood needed to meet the requirements of the body
Coronory artery disease (CAD)
A term used to describe blood vessels disorders that affect the coronary arteries:
Hyperlipidemia
high or excessive amounts of lipid (fat) in the blood that leads to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis
Hypertension
high blood pressure: considered to be >140/90 mm Hg over several readings
myocardial infarction
an even in which part of the heart muscle dies because of an interuption or cessation of blood flow
prehypertensive state
BP in the range of 120/80 to 140/90
thrombosis
the formation of a blood clot within the vascular system
name conditions that can lead to hypertension?
heart condition
hyperthyroidism
kidney conditions
name risk factors that can lead to hypertension?
primary: genetic, age, gender, race
secondary: lifestyle, diet, anxiety, alcohol consumption, sodium intake
what is drug action of bile acid sequestrants?
bile acid sequestrants increase the loss of LDL through increased defacation.
bile acid sequestrant

cholstryamine
Questran
route: po (powder)
dose: 4g qd or bid
action: bile acid sequestrants increase the loss of LDL through increased defacation.
>>constipation, flatulence
do not chew or crush tablets
Tk ac
bile acid sequestrant


colestipol
Colestid
route: po
dose: 5-30 q qd (may be given in divided doses)
action: bile acid sequestrants increase the loss of LDL through increased defacation.
>>constipation, flatulence
do not chew or crush tablets
Tk ac
What are HMG-COA reductase inhibitors referred to as?
the HMG-COA reductase inhibitors are referred to as statins.
Name drug action of statins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins inhibit an enzyme responsable for one of the first steps in the overall conversion of fats into cholesterol
what is the overall effect of statins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?
statins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors raise the rate of HDL and lower the LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

lovastatin
Mevacor
ind: antihyperlipidemic
route: po
dose: 10-80 mg qd in single or divided doses
action: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins inhibit an enzyme responsable for one of the first steps in the overall conversion of fats into cholesterol
>>photosensitivity, GI upset
Tk c meals
HGA-CoA reductase inhibitors

simvastatin
Zocor
ind: antihyperlipidemic
action: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins inhibit an enzyme responsable for one of the first steps in the overall conversion of fats into cholesterol
route: po
dose: 5-40 mg qd
HGA-CoA reductase inhibitor

pravastatin
Pravachol
ind: antihyperlipidemic
action: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins inhibit an enzyme responsable for one of the first steps in the overall conversion of fats into cholesterol
route: po
dose: 10-40 mg qhs
>>photosensitivity
HGA-CoA reductase inhibitor


atrovastatin
Lipitor
ind: antihyperlipidemic
action: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors or statins inhibit an enzyme responsable for one of the first steps in the overall conversion of fats into cholesterol
route: po
dose: 10-80 mg qd
>>photosensitivity
Name drug action of fibric acid antihyperlipidemics?
fibric acid antihyperlipidemics work by inhibiting the extraction of free fatty acids, which reduces the liver's ability to produce triglicerides. this agent also increases HDL.
fibric acid antihyperlipidemic


gemfibrozil
Lopid
route: po
dose: 600 mg po bid before morning and evening meals
action: fibric acid antihyperlipidemics work by inhibiting the extraction of free fatty acids, which reduces the liver's ability to produce triglicerides. this agent also increases HDL.
>>dizziness, blurred vision
miscellaneous antihyperlipidemic


nicotinic acid
Niaspan (legend)
Niacin (OTC) [read package insert for dose]
route: po
dose: 1-2g tid c meals or pc
>>photosensitivity
name drug action of antiarrhythmic agents
all antiarrhythmic agents work on the conduction system in the heart to produce regular heartbeats.
antiarrhythmic agent


quinidine sulfate,
quinidine gluconate
Quinidex (po)
Quinalan (IV)
ind: tacycardia and other arryhthmias
route: po, IV
dose: 200-300 mg tid to qid
action: all antiarrhythmic agents work on the conduction system in the heart to produce regular heartbeats.
>>GI upset
do not crush or chew sustained-release tablets
Tk c food
Tk utd
ATTENTION: explain the difference between quinine and quinidine
quinine: antimalarial agent


quinidine: cardiac aget
antiarrhythmic agent


procainamide
Pronestyl
route: po, IM, IV
action: slow down the speed of heart conduction
ind: tachycardia and other arrhythmias
inj form used in life threatening tachycardia events.
dose: tbd by dr. based on weight and age of patient
Tk utd
antiarrhythmic agent


diospyramide
Norplace
route: po, inj
action: slows down the heart, inj form used in life-threatening tachycardias
dose: 100-200mg q6h or 300-SR q12h
>>dry mouth, dizziness, difficulty urinating, constipation, blurred vision
Do not break or chew tablet
Tk utd
antiarrhythmic agent


lidocaine
Xylocaine
ind: acute mgmt of ventricular arrhythmias
route: inj, IV
dose: for IV, 50-100 mg at a rate of 25 to 50 mg/minute
kept in ER crash carts. used in code blue situations.
name common treatment options available to Americans suffering from CHF?
digoxin and diuretics.

diuretics releive edema often associated with CHF
explain the 4 steps of controlling HBP?
step 1: weight reduction
ACE inhibitors
Beta-blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Diuretics

step 2: adrenergic blockers

step 3: vasodilators
Angiotensin converting enzyme agent (ACE Inhibitor)

enalapril
Vasotec
ind: mild to severe HTN
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
route: po, IV
dose: 10-40 mg qd or bid prf HTN
Tk utd
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
Angiotensin converting enzyme agent
ACE inhibitors

lisinopril
Prinivil, Zestril
ind: hypertension
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
route: po
dose: 20-40 mg qd or bid
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
Angiotensin converting enzyme agents
ACE inhibitors


benazepril
Lotensin
ind: hypertension
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
route: po
dose: 20-40 mg qd or bid
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
angiotensin converting enzyme agents
ACE inhibitors


captopril
Capoten
ind: HTN
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
route: po
dose: 25 mg bid or tid
Tk ac
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
angiotension converting enzyme agents
ACE inhibitors


fosinopril
Monopril
ind: hypertension
route: po
action: ACE inhibitors reduce BP by causing a decrease of pressure in the arteries.
dose: 20-40 mg qd
Tk ac
>>HA, hypotension, nausea, vomiting
angiotensin II receptor antagonist


losartan
Cozaar
ind: HBP
action: inhibit the affects of angiotensin II receptors located in vascular muscle which reduces BP via antagonistic effects on vasoconstriction
route: po
dose: 50mg qd
Tk utd
Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist


valsartan
Diovan
ind: HBP
action: inhibit the affects of angiotensin II receptors located in vascular muscle which reduces BP via antagonistic effects on vasoconstriction
route: po
dose: 80-320mg qd
Tk utd
beta-blocking agents


atenolol
Tenormin
ind: HTN, angina pectoris, after MI
action: block various enzymes that can cause HBP, including epinephrine
route: po, IV
dose: 50 mg qd
Tk utd
those with asthma or respiratory problems should take beta-1 specific agents as beta-2 agents can affect respiratory function.
>>dizziness, hypotension, diarrhea
beta-blocking agents


propranolol
Inderal
ind: HTN, angina, arrhythmias and migraines
action: block various enzymes that can cause HBP, including epinephrine
route: po, IV
dose: for hypertension 40mg bid
Tk utd
those with asthma or respiratory problems should take beta-1 specific agents as beta-2 agents can affect respiratory function.
>>dizziness, hypotension, diarrhea
beta-blocking agents


metoprolol
Lopressor
ind: hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias
route: po, IV
action: block various enzymes that can cause HBP, including epinephrine
dose: po 100-450 mg bid or tid
Tk utd
those with asthma or respiratory problems should take beta-1 specific agents as beta-2 agents can affect respiratory function.
>>dizziness, hypotension, diarrhea
beta-blocking agent


pindolol
Visken
ind: hypertension
route: po
action: block various enzymes that can cause HBP, including epinephrine
dose: max. of 60 mg qd
Tk utd
those with asthma or respiratory problems should take beta-1 specific agents as beta-2 agents can affect respiratory function.
>>dizziness, hypotension, diarrhea
beta-blocking agent


acebutolol
Sectral
ind: hypertension, ventricular arrhythmias
route: po
action: block various enzymes that can cause HBP, including epinephrine
dose: 400-800mg qd
Tk utd
those with asthma or respiratory problems should take beta-1 specific agents as beta-2 agents can affect respiratory function.
>>dizziness, hypotension, diarrhea
calcium channel blockers


diltaziem
Carziem CD
ind: angina pectoris, chronic stable angina, essential hypertension
action: decrease calcium intake by the heart and blood vessels resulting in slowed heart rate, and reduced stress on heart muscle
route: po, IV
dose: po for HTN, 180-360 mg qd in divided doses tid or qid
Tk utd
do not crush or chew extended release tablets
>>dizzy, drowsy, blurred vision
calcium channel blockers


nifedipine
Procardia, Adalat
ind: chronic stable angina, HTN
action: decrease calcium intake by the heart and blood vessels resulting in slowed heart rate, and reduced stress on heart muscle
route: po
dose: for HTN 30 or 60 mg qd
Tk utd
do not chew or break extended release tablets
>>dizzy, drowsy, blurred vision
calcium channel blockers


verapamil
Calan, Isoptin
ind: angina, chronic atrial flutter, or fibrillation, essential hypertension
action: decrease calcium intake by the heart and blood vessels resulting in slowed heart rate, and reduced stress on heart muscle
dose: po for HTN 80mg tid; for SR formulation 120mg or 240mg qd
Tk c food
Tk utd
>>dizzy, drowsy, blurred vision
calcium channel blockers


amlodipine
Norvasc
ind: HTN, chronic stable angina, variant angina
action: decrease calcium intake by the heart and blood vessels resulting in slowed heart rate, and reduced stress on heart muscle
route: po
dose: for HTN, 5-10 mg qd
Tk utd
>>dizzy, drowsy, blurred vision
calcium channel blocker


felodipine
Plendil
ind: HTN
action: decrease calcium intake by the heart and blood vessels resulting in slowed heart rate, and reduced stress on heart muscle
route: po
dose: 2.5 to 10 mg qd
Tk utd
do not crush or chew tablet
>>dizzy, drowsy, blurred vision
name agents commonly used to treat anginal attacks?
nitrates, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers
anticoagulant


heparin
Liquaemin
ind: decrease clotting factor in blood
route: IV, SC (only inj forms)
>>possible hemmorhage (prethrombin time (PT) tests must be done to monitor how long it takes the blood to form clots when on this medication
antidote: phtonadione inj (vit K)
anticogulant


warfarin
Coumadin
ind: reduce clotting factor of blood
route: po, IV
>>possible hemmorhage; prethrombin time (PT) tests must be done to monitor how long it takes the blood to form clots when on this medication
antidote: phtonadione inj (vit K)
antiplatelet agent


aspirin
aspirin
ind: reduce the arterial thrombi of blood
route: po
dose: 81 to 325 mg qd
action: work mainly on arterial thrombi which are made of platelet aggregates
antiplatlet agent


dipyridamole
Persantine
ind: reduce the arterial thrombi of blood
action:work mainly on arterial thrombi which are made of platelet aggregates
dose: 75 to 100 mg qid
route: po
antiplatelet agent


ticlopidine
Ticlid
ind: reduce the arterial thrombi of blood
action: work mainly on arterial thrombi which are made of platelet aggregates
route: po
dose: 250 mg bid with food
antiplatelet agent


clopidogrel
Plavix
ind: reduce the arterial thrombi of blood
action: work mainly on arterial thrombi which are made of platelet aggregates
route: po
dose 75 mg qd
thrombolytic


streptokinase
Streptase
ind: thrombolism
action: enzyme extracted from bacteria destroys clots after they are formed
used in ER dept ASAP after MI to break up clot
thrombolytic


urokinase
Abbokinase
ind: thrombolism
action: lytic agent retrieved from a human protein that reduces thrombolism
thrombolytic


alteplase
Activase, tPA
ind: thrombolism
action: natural enzyme that is normally produced by body to dissolve blood clots

>$1000/dose