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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Trabeculae carnae are features of ...
Both ventricles
Before birth, blood from the right atrium passes to the left atrium via the
Foramen ovale
Parasympathetic nerves to the heart travel with which cranial nerve?
Vagus Nerve
The crista terminalis and pectinate muscle are features of
The right atrium
The middle layer of the heart wall is the
Myocardium
Coronary arteries are branches of the
Ascending aorta
What is secreted by the adrenal cortex so that salt & water can be retained in the body?
Aldosterone
Pulmonary circulation
1)r.ventricle
2)pulm. artery(r/l)<lungs>
3)pulm. veins (4)
4)lf atrium
Systemic Circulation
1)lf ventricle
2)aorta(head,neck,trunk,limbs)internal organs
3)IVC & SVC
4)rt atrium
Artery
carries blood away from heart
1)thick wall
2)high pressure
3)no valves
Veins
carries blood towards heart
1)thin wall
2)low pressure
3)no valves above heart level except gi venous system
4)valves below heart level except portal system
Capillary
smallest bv
1)walls have holes for exchange
2)low pressure
3)gas,nutrients,hormones,electrolytes,fluids
Body priority
1)digestive system
2)brain
The volume of blood in adult circulation is about
6 liters
The heart pumps about ___ of blood per minute (resting)
5 liters
At any given time the majority of blood stay in
the vein
Blood pressure
bp=p@systole/p@ diastole
bp=p@vent cont/p@vent relax
bp=120mmHg/80
p=force/cm2
Blood flow
volume of blood flowing thru a vessel
Resistance
opposition to flow & is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes thru vessels
Pressure gradient
blood flows from high pressure to low pressure
Pressure,resistance, flow relations
1. bp high=bf high
2. bp low=bf low
3. r high= bf low
Laminar flow vs. turbulent flow
Laminar flow
1) smooth,straight,silent
Turbulent flow
1) spiral,noisy (vascular bruit),related to aneurysm
Murmur
Cadiac abnormal sound
r/l coronary arteries
branches of ascending aorta. related to ischemia,angina pectoris
coronary sinus
receives blood from all veins except 2 ant.cardiac veins. empties blood to right atrium.
r/l auricles
connected to atrium, pouch shaped.
great vessels of the heart
1)svc & ivc (to right atrium)
2)pulm.trunk (from r vent)
3)ascending aorta (from l vent)
right atrium
1)seperated from l.atrium by interatrial septum.
2)formen ovale- b goes from r.atrium to l.atrium (before birth)
3)foramen ovalis-pulm.circ
right ventricle
1)seperates r.atrium by tricuspid valve (av valve).
2)attached to chordae tendinae attached to papillary muscle
3)seperated by l.vent by interventricular septum (has bundle of his)
left atrium
1)seperated from left ventricle by mitral valve (av)
left ventricle
1) contains myocardial layer
2)trabeculae carnae
intrinsic nerve supply
1)regulates heart rate, cardiac rhythm & cardiac contractility (cc)
2)sensitive to chemical stimuli, blood ph or pCO2
SA Node
1)pacemaker of heart
2)located near opening of SVC
Interatrial bundles
fibers along r/l atrium walls
AV Node
Near right AV opening
Bundle of His (AV bundle)
1)inside intervent. septum
2)divides in l/r bundles
3)turns into purkinje fibers (in myocardium)
Extrinsic innervation
1)associated w/ ANS and sensory fibers of heart
2) ANS controls & regulates heart rate, cardiac contractility & cardiac ouput of BP
Sympathetic innervation
O-spinal chord (t1-t4)
T-cardiac tissue
Parasympathetic innervation
O-medulla oblongata
partially form Vagus nerve
T-cardiac tissue
Sensory nerves
O-heart
travel to the CNS with autonomic fibers.
Sympathetic stimulation (heart)
1)↑ heart rate (tachycardia)
2)↑ bp (hypertension)
3)↑ bf
4)↑ co
5)↑ cc
6)↑ pp
Parasympathetic stimulation (heart)
1)↓ heart rate (bradycardia)
2)↓ bp (hypotension)
3)↓ bf
4)↓ co
5)↓ cc
6)↓ pp
Coronary occlusion
tissue of ♥ dies

isoelectric potential changes (♥ will not cont.in sync)

ventricular fibrilation= cardiac arrest or death
(most common side=lf.ant.branch of l. coronary artery)
Angina pectoris
chest pain
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of artery caused by fat deposit. causes:
1.fatty diet
2.smoking
3.chronic anxiety
Tachycardia
fast ♥ rate. causes:
1.↑ bt (fever)
2. stimulates sympathetic system (fear, anxiety)
3.toxin in ♥(bacterial endotoxin)
Bradycardia
slow ♥ rate. causes:
1.↓bt (hypothermia)
2. stimulates parasympathetic system (sleep)
3.relaxation
4.myocardial weakening (disease of ♥)
5.well trained athlete
High blood pressure factors (hypertension)
1.co
2.ANS activity
3.peripheral resistance
4.blood volume
5.stroke volume
Hypertension
1.essential (primary) 80% ?
2.renal ht:renin-angiotensin cycle 15%
3.secondary:ht due to another disease/condition
Renal hypertension
1.kidney→renin/liver→angiotensinogen
2.meet up in blood=angiotensin 1
3.goes to lungs turns into angiotensin 2
4.goes to adrenal gland→aldosterone
5.goes to kidney
6. retains salt and water
7.hypervolumia & ↑ osmolality
8.renal hypertension
Electrocardiogram
1.p wave=depolarization of atria
2.QRS=depolarization of vent.
3.T=repolarization of vent.
Heart sounds:Lub
1st heart sound:systolic
1.av valve closing (sound)
2.aortic & pulmonic valve opening
3.vent.cont.
4.↑ bp
5.atria ↑
Heart sounds:Dup
2nd heart sound:diastolic
1.aortic & pulmonic valve (sound) closing
2.av valve opening
3.vent. relax
4.vent. ↑
5.atria cont.
Separation of blood
1.plasma 55%
2.buffy coat:wbc& platelets 1%
3.rbc 44%
Blood types
1.O→O most com. uni.donor,both A B
2.A→AA or AO B antib.only
3.B→BB or BO A antib.only
4.AB→AB uni.receiver,neither A B
Rhesus factor
when rh- woman has rh+ fetus, she produces rh antibodies against the next fetus.
Microcytic hypochromic anemia
iron deficiency. most common worldwide. mostly in children. rbc-small
Macrocytic normochromic anemia
(aka marcocytosis)-liver disease & alcoholism. deficient in VB12 & folic acid. rbc-big.
Normocytic normochromic anemia
severe blood loss. rbc-normal
Anemia of chronic disease
alcholism,RA,cancer,TB,SLE
Leukocytosis
1.↑ WBC w/ infection
2.acute infection= ↑ neutrophil
3.chronic infection=all ↑ esp.monocyte
Leukemia
cancer in kids. ↑ WBC in b.marow,makes rbc starve.
Leukopenia
very ↓ WBC. associated w/viral disease.
Plasma contents
1.albumin
2.globulin
3.fibrinogen
4.blood glucose
5.electrolytes
6.enzymes,hormones,wast material, blood gases..etc
TOTPROTEIN=ALBUMIN+GLOBULIN
Albumin
made in liver. maintains osmotic pressure. smallest plasma protein
Globulin
essential protein for formation of rbc. immunity
Fibrinogen
have the greatest molecular weight & involved w/ blood clots (coagulation)
Glucose
for formation of energy.
not > 200mg=diabetes
Erethropoietin
1.kidney→erethropoietin
2.goes to b.marrow→rbc
erethropoietin released when body does not have oxygen.
people w/ kidney disease have anemia.
Lymphatic system
Thoracic duct (highway)always green.(main lymph duct)
1.cisterna chyli (ant.lum.spien)-drains lymph via thoracic duct. ends between lf. int.jugular vein & lf. subclavian nerve. joins venous blood.
Lymph node locations
1.axillary
2.inguinal
3.neck/throat
Lymph node disease (lymphadenopathy)
rule-can't palpate normal lymyh node.
criteria:
1.size
2.consistency-mushy(infection),rubbery(viral),hard(cancer)
3.painful or painless(diseased)
Acquired Immunity
1.Active-produced by andtibodies developed in body in response to antigen
Natural Acquired Immunity
exposure
Induced Active immunity
immunization or vaccine
Passive immunity
produced by transfer of antibodies from another source
Natural passive immunity
breastfed
Artificial passive
administered antibodies
Innate immunity
Born with antibodies
T cell
1.cell mediated immunity
2.t=thymus
3.direct PHYSICAL attack on infected cells
B Cell
1.antibody mediated imm/humoral imm
2.b=bursa(lymph node)
3.CHEMICAL attack by secreted antibodies. "Y"
Nasal Cavity
1.hair-sensory
2.nasal epithelium-warms and moistens air.
Pharynx
1.nasopharynx
2.oropharynx
3.larynogopharynx-behind thryroid cartilage. between vocal chords.
Trachea
made of cartilaginous rings. c-shaped.
1.Carina-bottom of trachea
a. rt main bronchus
b. lf main bronchus
Bronchial tree
1.lobar bronchus
2.segmental bronchus
3.bronchiole
4.respiratory bronchiole
5.alveolar duct-->atria (access > 1 alveolar sac)
Hilus
1)main bronchus(biggest hole)
2)Pul.artery(always on top)↑CO2
3)Pul.vein (2 or more)↑CO2 ↑O2
4)lymph vessels
5)nerves(sympathetic,parasympathetic,sensory....has touch and pressure but NO PAIN FIBERS)
Sympathetic Stimulation to the Lung
1)↑ br (tachypnea)
2)↑ ventilation
3)↑ circulation
4)condensation of mucous or ↓ in mucous secretion
Parasympathetic Stimulation to the lung
1)↓ br (bradypnea)
2)↓ ventilation
3)↓ circulation
4)↑ mucous secretion
Asthma
triggered by bt changes or by increased parasympathetic stimulation.
Pancoast tumors
cancer in apex of lung.associated with smokers. 40+. cancer spreads to neck and damages sympathetic chain of neck. leads to Horner's syndrome.
Horner's syndrome
1)ptosis-drooping eyelid
2)lack of facial sweating
3)dry,warm skin
4)sunrise sign indicates 4-6months to live
COPD (chronic obstructed pulmonary disease)
1.emphysema-formation of cavities in lungs from smoking.ability to brieath in but not out.
2)chronic bronchitis
3)pneumonia-acute infection of blood tissue alveoli.usually affects the middle lobe. leads to septicemia.
Septicemia
infection in the blood.
1)high fever
2)coughing w/ sputum
3)tiredness
Inhalation (inspiration)
1) chest volume ↑ from vertical and horizontal stance.
2) ribs move ↑(except 1st pair)
3) pleural cavity pressure ↓
4)lung tissue expands
5)diaphragm goes ↓
6)abdominal cavity pressure ↑
7)ant. abd.muscle tense
Exhalation (expiration)
1)chest volume goes ↓
2)ribs move ↓
3)pleural cavity pressure ↑
4)lung tissue shrinks
5)diaphragm ↑
6)abdominal cavity pressure ↓
7)ant. abd.muscle relaxed
Respiratory centers
regulates breathing. located in the pons and the medulla oblongata.
Pons
1 pneumotaxic center-suppresses breathing
2 apneustic center-excitement
Medulla Oblongata
respiratory rhymycity center-allows one to breathe in and out.
Relaxed breathing
only the diaphragm works (goes up and down)
Forced respiration
body recruits additional accessory respiratory muscles.
1.scm
2.intercostal muscles (external,internal,innermost)
3.scalene muscle(lateral side of neck)
Horner's syndrome
1)ptosis-drooping eyelid
2)lack of facial sweating
3)dry,warm skin
4)sunrise sign indicates 4-6months to live
COPD (chronic obstructed pulmonary disease)
1.emphysema-formation of cavities in lungs from smoking.ability to brieath in but not out.
2)chronic bronchitis
3)pneumonia-acute infection of blood tissue alveoli.usually affects the middle lobe. leads to septicemia.
Septicemia
infection in the blood.
1)high fever
2)coughing w/ sputum
3)tiredness
Inhalation (inspiration)
1) chest volume ↑ from vertical and horizontal stance.
2) ribs move ↑(except 1st pair)
3) pleural cavity pressure ↓
4)lung tissue expands
5)diaphragm goes ↓
6)abdominal cavity pressure ↑
7)ant. abd.muscle tense
Exhalation (expiration)
1)chest volume goes ↓
2)ribs move ↓
3)pleural cavity pressure ↑
4)lung tissue shrinks
5)diaphragm ↑
6)abdominal cavity pressure ↓
7)ant. abd.muscle relaxed
A arch of aorta
AB pulmonary trunk
AB1 rt pulmonary artery
AB2 lf pulmonary artery
AC pulmonary veins
AD pulmonary valve
AE ductus arteriosum
B SVC
BB thoracic aorta
BC rt atrium
BD aortic valve
BE mitral (bicuspid)valve
C brachiocephalic trunk
C1 rt.subclavian
C2 rt.common carotid artery
CA chordae tendineae
CB lf ventricle
CD papillary muscle
CE epicardium or apex
D lf common carotid artery
DA myocardium
DB interventricular septum
DC rt ventricle
DE tricuspid valve
E lf subclavian
EB ascending aorta
EE IVC
label diagram
A cupola (parietal pleura)
AB thyroid cartilage
AC cricoid cartilage
AD tracheal ring
AE visceral pleura
B apex of lung
BA carina
BC horizontal (minor) fissure
BD lower (inferior) lobe
BE base
C parietal pleura
CA mediastinum
CB lingual
D pleural cavity
DA middle lobe
label diagram