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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What can we say about the underlying cause of congenital heart defects?
It is known only in 10% of defects
What are some risk factors of getting Congenital heart defects?
Prenatal, environmental, and genetic risk factors
Maternal rubella, insulin-dependent diabetes, alcoholism, PKU, and hypercalcemia
Drugs
Chromosome aberrations
What are some complications of congenital heart defects?
Congestive heart failure
Hypoxemia
Cyanosis
Eisenmenger syndrome
What are Defects Increasing Pulmonary Blood Flow?
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close.
PDA allows blood to shunt from the pulmonary artery to the aorta
Atrial Septal Defect
Abnormal communication between the atria
Three major types
Ostium primum defect
Ostium secundum defect
Sinus venosus defect
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Abnormal communication between the ventricles
Most common type of congenital heart lesion
Types
Perimembranous VSD
Muscular VSD
Supracristal VSD
AV canal VSD
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Abnormal communication between the ventricles
Most common type of congenital heart lesion
Types
Perimembranous VSD
Muscular VSD
Supracristal VSD
AV canal VSD
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Abnormal communication between the ventricles
Most common type of congenital heart lesion
Types
Perimembranous VSD
Muscular VSD
Supracristal VSD
AV canal VSD
Tetralogy of Fallot
Syndrome represented by four defects
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Overriding aorta straddles the VSD
Pulmonary valve stenosis
Right ventricle hypertrophy
What are Aortic Strenosis (obstructive defects)
Narrowing of the aortic outflow tract
Caused by malformation or fusion of the cusps
Causes an increased workload on the left ventricle
Explain the Transposition of the Great Arteries
Transposition of the Great Arteries
Aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle
Results in two separate, parallel circuits
Unoxygenated blood circulates continuously through the systemic circulation
Oxygenated blood circulates continuously through the pulmonary circulation
Extrauterine survival requires communication between the two circuits
What are the stages of the Kawasaki Disease?
Stages
One (0-12 days): capillaries, venules, arterioles, and the heart become inflamed
Two (12-35 days): inflammation of larger vessels; coronary aneurysms appear
Three (26-40 days): medium-sized arteries begin granulation process; small vessel inflammation decreases
Four (day 40 and beyond): scarring of vessels, thickening of tunica intima, calcification, coronary artery stenosis
What are the Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease?
Diagnosis (5 of 6 major findings)
Fever for 5 or more days (unresponsive to antibiotics)
Bilateral conjunctivitis without exudation
Erythema of oral mucosa (strawberry tongue)
Changes in the extremities, such as peripheral edema and erythema with desquamation of palms and soles
Polymorphous rash
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Explain Systematic Hypertension
Systemic Hypertension
Hypertension in children differs from adult hypertension
Often have an underlying disease
Renal disease or coarctation of the aorta
A cause of the hypertension in children is almost always found
Children with hypertension are commonly asymptomatic
What are the Characteristics and risk factors of Childhood Obesity?
Childhood Obesity
Multivariable and multidimensional
Risk factors
Race, socioeconomic status, and lack of health insurance
Childhood nutrition, level of physical activity, and engagement of sedentary activities (TV, computer use, etc.)
Association with parental obesity