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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where is the apex and base of the heart?
the base is at the superior surface, the apex is at the inferior tip
What are the three layers of the heart wall from outermost to innermost?
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
What are the three layers of the heart wall surrounded by?
pericardium
What are the two parts of the paricardium?
outer layer-parietal pericardium
inner layer-epicardium
What do the parietal pericardium and epicardium form?
pericardial sac
What are the three layers of the parietal pericardium?
dense fibrous tissue, areolar tissue, mesothelium
What does the epicardium cover?
the outer surface of the heart
What two layers is the epicardium composed of?
mesothelium, areolar tissue
Which heart layer forms the walls of both the atria and the ventricles?
myocardium
What is the myocardium composed of?
cardiac muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerves
How are the layers of cardiac muscle tissue arranged?
concentric
What layer of the heart wall coverss the inner surfaces of the heart?
endocardium
What is the endocardium cmposed of?
simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) and areolar tissue
How does cardiac muscle tissue differ from skeletal muscle tissue? (4)
1. small cell size
2. single nucleus
3. branching interconnections between cells
4. specialized intercellular connections
What is an intercalated disc?
the specialized sites that connect cardiac muscle cells to several others
How are the layers of cardiac muscle tissue arranged?
concentric
Do cardiac muscle cells contain myofibrils?
yes
What layer of the heart wall coverss the inner surfaces of the heart?
endocardium
What gives cardiac muscle tissue a striated appearance?
numerous sarcomeres
What is the endocardium cmposed of?
simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) and areolar tissue
How are cardiac tissues richly supplied with capillaries and blood supply?
the cells are metabolically very active and have a high demand for oxygen and nutrients
How does cardiac muscle tissue differ from skeletal muscle tissue? (4)
1. small cell size
2. single nucleus
3. branching interconnections between cells
4. specialized intercellular connections
How are cardiac muscle cells connected at intercalated discs?
gap junctions and desmosomes
What is an intercalated disc?
the specialized sites that connect cardiac muscle cells to several others
What is the purpose of intercalated discs?
help stablilze the position of adjacent cells
Do cardiac muscle cells contain myofibrils?
yes
What gives cardiac muscle tissue a striated appearance?
numerous sarcomeres
How are cardiac tissues richly supplied with capillaries and blood supply?
the cells are metabolically very active and have a high demand for oxygen and nutrients
How are cardiac muscle cells connected at intercalated discs?
gap junctions and desmosomes
What is the purpose of intercalated discs?
help stablilze the position of adjacent cells
What do gap junctions allow the transport of?
ions and small molecules between cells-->direct electrical connection
Why does the cardiac muscle tissue resembe a single enormous muscle cell?
each cardiac muscle cell is mechanically, chemically, and electrically connected to one another
What is a functional syncytium?
a fused mass of cells
Where is the heart located?
mediastinum in the pericardial cavity
What is the mediastinum?
the area between the two pleural cavities
What are the great vessels?
the largest veins and arteries in the body
What does the pericardial cavity contain?
15-50 ml of pericardial fluid
What is the function of pericardial fluid?
acts as a lubricant that reduces friction between the opposing surfaces as the heart beats
How many chambers are there in the heart
four--two atria and two ventricles
Describe the structure of the atria.
thin muscular walls, highly expandable
What are sulci?
grooves that mark boundaries between the atria and the ventricles and the left and right ventricles
What do the sulci contain?
artieries and veins that carry blood to and from the cardiac muscle
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
fiber that connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch
What is the auricle?
expandable extension of the atrium
What is the coronary sulcus?
groove that marks the border between the atria and ventricles
What is the anterior interventricular sulcus?
depression on the anterior surface that marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles
What is the function of the coronary sinus?
carries blood collected from the myocardium to the right atrium
What is the posterior interventriciular sulcus?
depression on the posterior surface of the heart that marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles
How does the heart tissue recieve its blood supply
coronary circulation
Where do the right and left coronary arteries originate?
base of the ascending aorta
Where is blood pressure highest in the systemic circuit?
the base of the ascending aorta
is myocardial blood flow steady?
NO
When does myocardial blood flow peak and cease?
peaks when heart muscle is relaxed, ceases when it contracts
What does the right coronary artery supply?
-right atrium
-portions of both ventricles
-portions of conducting system of the heart
What arteries supply the surface of the right ventricle
marginal arteries
What does the left coronary artery supply?
-left ventricle
-left atrium
-interventricular septum
What maitains a continuous blood flow despite pressure fluctuations in the left and right coronary arteries?
arterial anastomoses
What is the circumflex artery?
branch off the left coronary artery that fuses with branches of the right coronary artery
What vessel supplies blood to the interventricular septum and adjacent portions of the ventricles?
posterior interventricular artery
What are the major collecting vessels on the anterior surface of the heart?
anterior cardiac veins and great cardiac vein
What does the anterior cardiac vein drain?
anterior surface of the rght ventricle
Where does the great cardiac vein drain blood from?
the region suppied by the anterior interventricular artery
What are the major collecting vessels on the posterior surface? (4)
coronary sinus, posterior cardiac vein, small cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein
What area does the posterior cardiac vein drain blood?
area supplied by circumflex area
Where does the small cardiac vein drain blood from?
posterior surfaces of right atrium and ventricle, empties into coronary sinus
Where does the middle cardiac vein drain blood from
the area supplied by the posterior interventricular artery, empties into coronary sinus
What is elastic rebound?
flow of blood forward into the systemic circuit and backward into the coronary arteries
What ensures a continuous flow of blood?
blood pressure and elastic rebound
What controls the direction of blood flow between the heart chambers?
atrioventricular valves
Where does the right atrium recieve blood from
inferior and superior vena cavae and coronary sinus
What valve carries blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
tricuspid valve
What are the chordae tendinae?
connective tissue fiber that are the free edge of each valve
Where do the chordae tendinae originate?
papillary muscles
How does blood leave the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk?
pulmonary valve
Where does the left atrium recieve blood from?
pulmonary veins
What valve does blood flow through from the left atrium to the left ventricle?
bicuspid valve or mitral valve
How does blood leave the left ventricle?
through the aortic valve into the ascending aorta
What is the function of the atria?
collect blood returning to the heart and convey it to the corresponding ventricle
Describe the AV valves vs. the semilunar valves as the heart beats.
the AV valves close before the semilunar valves open, and semilunar valves close before the AV valves open
When the ventricles are relaxed, what valves are open and what are closed
the AV valves are open and semilunar valves are closed
When the ventricles contract, what happens to the valves?
the AV valves close and the semilunar valves open
What are the heart valves encircled by?
cardiac skeleton
What does the cardiac skeleton consist of?
tough elastic tisssue
What is the purpose of the cardiac skeleton?
stabilize the positions of the heart valves and ventricular muscle cells
What is the interatrial septum?
wall that seperates the the two atria
What is the interventricular septum?
wall that seperates the ventricles
Do the semilunar valves have muscular braces?
No
What is carditis?
an inflammation of the heart