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16 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of mechanical junctions joining myocytes?
Fascia adherenes and desmosomes.
Describe sequence of actions in a pacemaker cell
Vm drifts positive because of open Na+ gates.

K+ channels close.

At a given Vm, Ca+ channels open and membrane reaches action potential.

K+ gates open and sequence starts over.
During what period do the ventricles contract?
During the S-T seqment.
Give the sequence of events for the contraction of cardiac muscle.
Action potential arrives.

Voltage-gates Na+ gates open. K+ gates close.

Volage-gated slow Ca++ gates open and allow Ca++ from ECF to enter the cell.

Calcium-gated calcium gates open and allow Calcium to flow from the ER into the cell ISF. >90% Ca++ comes from ER.

Ca++ binds to Troponin and triggers contraction.

Ca++ channels close and K+ channels open. => Vm (resting)
For Mitral valve (bi-cuspid A-V) stenosis, will the resulting murmer be heard in the disastolic or systolic phase?
Diastolic
For an Aortic valve regurgitation murmer, will this be heard in the systolic or diastolic phase?
Diastole
For a Mitral valve (AV) regurgitation murmer, will this be heard in the systolic or diastolic phase?
Systolic
What is the consequence of an aortic valve stenosis?
Increased resistance for the heart to work against.
What is the consequence of a mitral valve stenosis?
May result in insufficient filling of the ventricle which in turn may starve the systemic system for blood if the opening is too narrow.
What is the result of Aortic regurgitation?
May reduce the pressure that the ventricle can attain.
What are the 3 layers of a blood vessels - not capilaries?
Tunical externa
Tunica media
Tunica intima.
What is contained within the tunica externa?
Consists of conncetive tissue. It anchors the vessel and provides passage for small nerve, lymphatic vessels, and smaller blood vessels.
What are the characteristics of the tunica media?
Usually the thickest layer of the tunica. It consists of smooth muscle, collagen and sometimes elastic tissues.
What are the characteristics of the tunica intima?
Simple squamous fibrous tissue. The endothelium acts as a selctively permeable barrier to blood solutes. Secretes vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.
What is the medullary ischemic reflex?
Drop in perfusion of the brain which results in increased BP and contractility of the heart.
For an aortic valve stenosis murmur, will this occur in the systolic or diastolic phase?
Systolic