• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What sound murmur indicated blood flowing the wrong way across valves?
BLOWING MURMUR
What sound murmur indicated blood hitting tissue, such as a stenotic valve?
HARSH MURMUR
What type of murmurs are heard best at the 2nd right intercostal space?
AORTIC
What type of murmurs are heard best at the apex of the heart (and often refers to the L axilla) ?
MITRAL
Phase of the cardiac cycle where the LV is pumping blood out (mitral valve closes and aortic valve opens)?
SYSTOLE
Harsh systolic murmur due to age (calcification or congenital bicuspid valve?
Aortic stenosis
Blowing diastolic murmur due to luetic aneurysm, chronic HTN, dissecting aortic aneurysm, ankylosing spondylitis?
Aortic Regurgitation
harsh diastolic murmur due to rheumatic heart disease?
Mitral stenosis
blowing systolic murmur due to advanced MVP, rheumatic heart disease, damage from infectious endocarditis, papillary muscle rupture secondary to MI, CHF
mitral regurgitation
midsystolic click; common with Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome
Mitral valve prolapse
What are the 3 ACYANOTIC congenital heart defects?
VSD, ASD, and PDA
What are the two types of ASD's?
ostium primum and ostium secundum
Type of ASD that is next to AV valve?
ostium primum
Type of ASD that is comprised of a fenestrated ovale fossa?
ostium secundum
What type of ASD accounts for 90% of them?
ostium secundum
What cyanotic congenital heart defect is comprised of VSD, subpulmonic stenosis, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy?
Tetralogy of Fallot
What is it called when the aorta connects to RV and pulmonary artery connects to LV?
Transposition of great vessels
What is the syndrome where you have reversal of a L to R shunt (such as VSD) to a R to L shunt (secondary to eventual development of pulm. HTN)
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
This type of congenital heart defects are all inherited
Obstructive
What type of coarctation of the aorta is preductal?
INFANT
What type of coarctation of the aorta is postductal?
ADULT
Form of ischemic heart disease that occurs due to a coronary artery spasm?
Prinzmetal's angina
Form of ischemic heart disease that disrupts plaque followed by formation of a platelet clot and causes spontaneous chest pain?
Unstable angina
Form of ischemic heart disease where the atherosclerotic plaque is unchanged and results in chest pain commonly during exercise, sex, and arguing
Stable angina
Ischemic heart disease where plaque is disrupted, followed by formation of a thrombosis, resulting in an occlusive platelet thrombus that sticks around long enough to cause infarction
Myocardial infarction
Name the kind of myocardial infarction that is non-Q wave NSTEMI and affects the inner 1/3 to 1/2 of the wall?
SUBENDOCARDIAL
Is a TRANSMURAL infarction non-Q wave or Q-wave and is it NSTEMI or STEMI?
Q wave and STEMI
When there is pathology at the surface of the heart can you expect to see non-ST elevation of ST elevation?
ST segment ELEVATION
In what circumstance will you see labs that are (+) for troponin in the blood?
When there is cardiac cell death; Non-Q wave MI and Q-wave MI
What two types of ischemic heart disease get pain relief from nitroglycerine?
stable angina and prinzmetal's angina
What three ischemic disorders will result in elevated CK-total, CK-MB?
unstable angina, Non-Q wave MI, and Q-wave MI
Will you see ST segment elevation with Prinzmetal's angina?
YES
Unstable angina, non-Q wave MI, and Q-wave MI are collectively known as what?
acute cornonary syndromes
Acute coronary syndromes are given these 3 things:
IV heparin, Beta blockers, and IV nitroglycerin
What is the first line therapy to adminiter in the ER when a patient has chest pain suspected to be due to cardiac pathology?
MONA
morphine
O2
nitroglycerine
aspirin
How long does it take dead cardiac tissue from an MI to turn into scar tissue?
8 weeks
What is it called when there is inadequate cardiac output due to taxing the heart too heavily?
heart failure
Signs and symptoms of L sided heart failure?
dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue
signs and symptoms of R sided heart failure?
ankle edema and jugular venous distention
What is the result of R-sided heart failure?
peripheral edema and nutmeg liver
what is the result of Left-sided heart failure?
pulm. edema and fluid overload
Is RAAS activated in L or R-sided heart failure?
Left-sided heart failure; secondary to inadequate renal perfusion
This type of endocarditis leads to vegetations made by thrombotic debris and organisms?
Infective endocarditis
Skin microbes (2) that cause acute infective endocarditis?
Staphylococcus aureus and
streptococcus spp.
Acute Infective endocarditis is most common in these two patient populations?
diabetics and IV drug users
Acute Infective Endocarditis only occurs in those with prior valve pathology.
TRUE or FALSE?
FALSE;
no prior valvular pathology needs to be present
Two common organisms that cause Subacute Infective Endocarditis? (from the bowel)
Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria
What are the 3 types of non-infective endocarditis?
Acute Rheumatic fever, marantic endocarditis, and Libman-Sacks Endocarditis
This non-infective endocarditis follows a previous streptococcus pyogenes infection and results in severe mitral valve damage
Acute Rheumatic fever
There is a higher risk of marantic endocarditis in those with severe or chronic illness, especially what?
Adenocarcinoma
This type of endocarditis only occurs in SLE patients and is comprised of Ag-Ab complexes causing severe valve damage
Libman-Sacks Endocarditis
What is the #1 type of Pericarditis in the world?
fibrinous
This type of pericarditis is due to transmural MI or Dressler syndrome?
Fibrinous
What is the #1 type of pericarditis in the US and what is it due to (6)?
Serous;
due to coxsackie's B virus, uremia, acute rheumatic fever, scleroderma, rheumatic heart disease, and SLE
This pericarditis is due to direct invasion by organisms; usually strep. penumoniae or staph. aureus)
suppurative
term for fluid in the pericardial sac
pericardial effusion
collapse of chambers of the heart due to outside forces compressing the heart is called what?
tamponade
molecular mimicry with this type of hypersensitivity cause acute rheumatic fever
Type II hypersensitivity
Acute pheumatic fever follows infection with what?
streptococcus pyogenes
What are the MAJOR Jones criteria?
migratory polyarthritis
carditis
sydenham's chorea
subcutaneous nodules
eruthema marginatum
What finding is histologically characteristic of Acute Rheumatic Fever?
Aschoff Body