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18 Cards in this Set

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Primary positive chronotropic/dromotropic agent
Atropine
Secondary positive chronotropic/dromotropic agents
calcium chloride

isoproterenol, glucagon
Primary positive ionotropic agents
epinephrine, dopamine, amrinone, digoxin
Secondary positive ionotropic agents
propranolol (for ASH, IHSS), dobutamine, milrinone
Primary afterload reducing agents

(vasodilators)
lisinopril
hydralazine
prazosin
nitroprusside
nitrates
Secondary afterload reducing agents
enalapril, others
Primary preload reducing agents
furosemide
Primary inhibitors of inappropriate proliferation/remodeling
propranolol, lisinopril, spironolactone
Secondary inhibitors of inappropriate proliferation/remodeling
Other beta blockers

Enalapril, losartan
shock
a clinical syndrome, usually lasting only hours, characterized by low blood pressure (usually) and poor perfusion of vital tissues (always)
Heart failure
a clinical syndrome in which heart disease (of various types) reduces cardiac output (eg. forward failure), increases venous filling pressures (back failure), and is accompanied by a proliferative/remodeling response that leads to premature death of myocardial cells, and then progressive deterioration and death of the patient
Dromotropic
conduction velocity
Problem: low preload
increase volume
Problem: HR too slow

(chronotropic, dromotropic)
Use:

Atropine
Isoproterenol (beta 1 and 2 agonist)
Pacemaker
Problem: HR too fast or disorganized
Cardioversion
Antiarrhythmic drugs
Problem: diminished inotropic state
Use:

epinephrine
Dopamine
Dobutamine (beta 1 agonist)
Amrinone
Calcium
Glucagon
Digoxin
Carvedilol
Correct acid/base
Correct hypoxemia
Problem: pathologic peripheral vasoconstriction
(Captopril...ACE inhibitor)
enalapril
lisinopril
hydralazine
prazosin
carvedilol
nitroglycerin
nitroprusside
Problem: excessive, abnormal contractility (diastolic dysfunction)
propranolol
verapamil