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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the ideal relative humidity for swine?
50-60%
what two infectious diseases cause immunosuppression in swine?
1. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
2. PRRS
what are four swine stressors that lead to decreased immune function?
1. Movement between facilities
2. Weaning
3. Environment: changes in climate, temperature fluctuations, inadequate ventilation
4. Changes in diet
what is the main affect of enzootic respiratory disease in swine populations?
decreases in feed efficiency and growth
what is the role of Bordatella bronchiseptica in swine atrophic rhinitis ("AR")?
1. reduced bone synthesis
2. mild, regressive form of AR
3. allows Pasteurella multocida type D to colonize
what affect does a Bordatella infection have on swine growth?
none - PmD is the big one
what ages of pigs are most susceptible to Bordatella?
< 6 weeks
which strain of Pasteurella is responsible for swine atrophic rhinitis?
type D
which three preexisting condition(s) are required for Pasteurella multocida to cause atrophic rhinitis?
1. Bordatella bronchiseptica infection
2. high ammonia
3. cytomegalovirus infection
what ages of pigs are most susceptible to Pasteurella multocida type D infection (AR)?
all ages
what is the physiologic lesion caused of a fulminant upper respiratory infection of Pasteurella multocida type D in swine?
permanent bone resorption (atrophic rhinitis)
which age/stage of production is atrophic rhinitis most symptomatic?
weaning to grower age, continuing through finishing
sneezing and blocked tear ducts (leaving "mascara marks") on swine is indicative of what disease?
AR
to evaluate turbinate atrophy in a post mortem of a pig with AR, where do you cut the snout off?
at the level of the 1st or 2nd premolar ("at the commissures of the smile")
which turbinate bones are most affected by AR in swine?
ventral scrolls
how is AR treated in
- commercial pigs
- pot-bellied pigs?
- tetracycline in feed
- Ceftiofur 14 days
what type of vaccines are required for AR in swine?
- Bordatella bacterin
- Pasteurella multocida type D with bacterin and TOXOID
vaccination for AR:
- dams to protect piglets
- new pigs
- dams 2-3 weeks prior to farrowing
- new pigs prior to entering nursery and then 2-3 weeks later
how do you protect weaning piglets from AR?
medicated early weaning
what three lab tests are used to diagnose AR?
Culture, immunofluorescence, PCR
which strains of influenza cause swine influenza?
group A influenza viruses: H1N1, H2N2
what 4 pathogens complicate classical swine flu?
1. influenza A viruses of other species
2. Pasteurella multocida type A
3. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
4. Haemophilus parasuis
when in the year do swine flu outbreaks occur?
fall/winter
swine influenza
- how fast does it spread
- morbidity and mortality
- rapidly spreading, sudden, short incubation
- high morbidity, low mortality
what are clinical signs of swine influenza?
- high fever, off feed, reluctance to rise and move (muscular weakness)
- coughing, thumps, nasal and ocular discharge
- abortions are possible
what does the pluck of a pig that dies of influenza look like PM?
- viral pattern, but overshadowed by secondary bacterial pneumonia, which causes a cranioventral consolidation
- copious, frothy to purulent exudate in the airways
what are the key histopathological findings of swine influenza?
- exudative bronchiolitis
- interstitial pneumonia
- "Broncho interstitial pneumonia)
what are two lab tests to diagnose swine influenza?
1. VI in embryonated eggs
2. HI serology
how is swine influenza treated?
1. a/b for secondary infections (feed, water, parenteral)
- NSAIDs - Banamine, aspirin
swine influenza is prevented with closed herds, strict quarantine of new animals, and all-in/all-out management. Is it still necessary to vaccinate?
yes
what causes mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs?
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
how does Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae establish infection, and when do initial signs show up?
- initial exposure from dam to piglet
- nursery to grower age groups show the initial signs
what is a common co-infection associated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae?
Pasteurella multocida type A
how does Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae allow P. multocida type A to cause pneumonia?
immunosuppressive effect of the alveolar macrophages
what predisposes pigs to Mycoplasmal pneumonia?
stress: dust, ammonia, movement, overcrowding, weather changes
what is the long-term effect on the economics caused by Mycoplasmal pneumonia?
reduced weight gain and feed efficiency (INCREASED DAYS TO MARKET; > 205)
describe the lung lesions, PM, of Mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs.
- clearly demarcated, firm lesions with a cranioventral pattern:
a. gray, shrunken (depressed below normal lung surface) lesions are CHRONIC
B. plum-colored lesions (swollen above level of normal lung) are ACTIVE
what are two key histopathological signs of Mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs?
1. lymphoid hyperplasia
2. perivascular and peribronchiolar cuffing
what are two lab tests to diagnose mycoplasmal pneumonia in swine?
1. FA test
2. culture (consider false negatives)
what are 4 antibiotics used to treat mycoplasmal pneumonia?
1. lincomycin
2. tetracyclines
3. Tiamulin
4. tylosin
when are pot-bellied pigs vaccinated for mycoplasmal pneumonia?
piglets 1-3 weeks
what are two ways to prevent mycoplasmal pneumonia?
1. vaccination
2. medicated early weaning
what cause pleuropneumonia in swine?
Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae
what ages/growth stages of pigs are most affected by pleuropneumonia?
nursery/grower: 6-20 week
what is the most important means by which A. pleuropneumoniae is introduced into a herd of swine?
carriers, by coughing
when will A. pleuropneumonia show the highest mortality outbreaks in a swine herd?
initial or stress-related
what is a common sequela to pleuropneumonia in swine?
co-infections, such as Mycoplasma
what are the 3 syndromes and associated clinical signs of A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs?
1. peracute: sudden death, usually with bloody nasal discharge
2. acute: severe respiratory distress, febrile, reluctance to move, 30-60% morbidity with very high mortality (pigs die unless treated)
3. chronic: unthrifty, thumping pigs
what does the lesion of swine pleuropneumonia look like
a blood clot, lesions extend deep into the parenchyma
which lung lobes have blood-clot looking lesions in swine pleuropneumonia?
diaphragmatic lobes
what is a good place to obtain a sample to culture for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae?
pleural/pericardial fluids
what are the PM gross lesions of pigs with chronic pleuropneumonia?
encapsulated abscesses and fibrinous pleuritis
what are three histopathological indicators of swine pleuropneumonia?
1. interlobular infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema
2. intravascular fibrinous thrombi (due to endotoxin)
3. "streaming a swirling" of macrophages within the interlobular septa
what are three antibiotics used to treat swine pleuropneumonia? What route of admin?
1. high dose penicillin
2. Ceftiofur
3. tetracycline
- need injection initially, along with a/b in feed or water
what antibiotics do you use to move pigs when controlling pleuropneumonia outbreaks?
1. tetracycline
2. tilmicosin
which antibiotics do you use in feeder pigs, prior to shipment, when controlling pleuropneumonia outbreaks?
1. long-acting penicillin
2. tetracycline
comment on swine pleuropneumonia vaccines
variable protection
what is the main way to prevent A. pleuropneumoniae?
strict isolation and serological testing of new arrivals
what agent causes swine pasteurellosis?
P. multocida type A
in which age group of pigs is P. multocida type A a primary pathogen?
neonates
what determines the incidence of swine pasteurellosis?
the incidence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection
where is P. multocida normal flora in the pig?
nasopharynx
symptoms of swine Pasteurellosis:
- growth
- clinical signs
- response to treatment
- uneven growth
- productive cough exacerbated by forced movement
- poor response to treatment
what are the two key histopathologic lesions of swine pasteurellosis?
1. bronchopneumonia
2. pleuritis
what do you not do with tilmicosin when treating pasteurellosis?
inject
what are 4 antibiotics used to treat swine pasteurellosis?
1. tetracycline
2. parenteral LA-200
3. florfenicol (IN FEED OR WATER)
4. tilmicosin in feed
comment on swine pasteurellosis vaccines
questionable
what genus of virus is PRRS?
Arterivirus
in PRRS, who experiences respiratory and who experiences reproductive syndromes?
1. neonates to market hogs experience respiratory syndrome, especially nursery pigs
2. sows and breeding age gilts- reproductive syndrome
where is PRRS shed?
Virus is shed in semen, oral and nasal secretions, urine, and feces and can cross the placenta in the third trimester
what is the most common mode of transmission of PRRS?
parenteral (biting, fighting, injections)
what histopath lesions are associated with PRRS?
-microscopic-multifocal to diffuse interstitial pneumonitis characterized by thickening of alveolar septa by many large macrophages.
what gross lesions are associated with PRRS?
-gross-cranial, middle and diaphragmatic lobes affected, secondary bacterial infection is common. Lymphadenopathy
which two pig growth stages have the highest seroprevalence of PRRS?
Nursery and growers
what are two aspects of treating PRRS?
1. Supportive therapy
2. Antibiotics to control 2° invaders
what are three methods in the prevention of PRRS?
1. Minimize herd introductions
2. ↑ Biosecurity
3. off site weaning
comment on PRRS vaccination
used as a quick fix. Should not be used if trying to eradicate PRRS from the herd as natural infection produces a sterile immunity where as vaccination does not.
which viruses cause porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD)?
PCV2a, PCV2b
what used to be called post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome?
Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD)
how is Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) transmitted?
oronasal contact with feces, urine or infected pig. Virus is shed in respiratory, oral, and urinary secretions as well as feces.
what are four factors that increase the pathogenicity of porcine circovirus?
I. PRRS greatest risk of disease development
ii Parvovirus
iii. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
iv. Immunomodulation – vaccination, especially with adjuvanted vaccines – oil and water.
what are the clinical signs of PCVAD?
a. Multisystemic syndrome – wasting and progressive weight loss, lethargy, dark colored diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, and paleness and jaundice. Dyspnea, tachypnea, anemia, diarrhea, and jaundice
what is characteristic of lungs affected by PCVAD at necropsy
fail to collapse, mottled and tan
what are two histopath findings of PCVAD?
- intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies
- Lymphoid depletion
how do you treat PVCAD?
support, treat 2ndary infections
what are five management factors that contribute to pneumonias in sheep and goats?
1) Housing – inadequate ventilation and build up of moisture and noxious gases.
2) Weaning
3) Shipping
4) Hypothermia and starvation
5) Vit. E and Se deficiency in lambs and kids
what bacteria causes acute death in young lambs?
Mannheimia
how do you examine a sheep/goat in respiratory distress?
be careful when restraining as stress of restraint may result in death. (open mouth breathing, view from behind)
Nasal bots: pathogenesis once larvae are deposited in the nares
Larvae are deposited during the summer and larvae remain in the sinuses for 2 to 10 months producing a mucopurulent nasal discharge.
how do you treat nasal bots?
avermectins
what is the causative agent of viral pneumonia in sheep?
Parainfluenza 3 (pneumonia due to Mannheimia)
what vaccine do you use and when do you vaccinate ewes to provide colostral immunity against viral pneumonia?
Vaccinate ewes with IBR/PI3 intranasal vaccine 3 weeks prior to parturition to provide colostral immunity
OPP (Maedi-Visna)
- type of virus
- incubation period
- Lentiviridae (RNA retrovirus)
- SLOW (3 year) incubation period
what are the histopathologic lesions of OPP/Maedi-Visna?
- thickening of interlobular septa and lymphoid hyperplasia
- lymphoproliferative pneumonia, meningeal arteritis with encephalitis, non-suppurative arthritis, and lymphocytic mastitis.
what infection of sheep causes posterior paresis?
OPP/Maedi-Visna
what are is a key gross path finding of OPP/Maedi-Visna?
lungs are firm and don't collapse
how is OPP/Maedi-Visna transmitted?
aerosols or by ingestion of feces or viral infected lymphocytes in the colostrum or milk
how is OPP/Maedi-Visna prevented?
separate infected from non-infected; test new additions using serological screening
what are the main clinical signs of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis?
neurologic disease in kids and arthritic disease in adults.
characterize the respiratory disease caused by Caprine arthritis encephalitis
chronic interstitial pneumonia in adults that results in secondary bacterial invaders. Often times these goats will have signs of arthritis. Carpus or tarsus are often involved.
how is caprine arthritis encephalitis transmitted?
via colostrum and milk. There is some horizontal transmission via contact with infected goats.
how do you prevent kids from being infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis from their mothers?
pasteurized colostrum and milk and separated from infected adults
comment on the mastitis caused by caprine arthritis encephalitis
This virus is similar to OPP and will cause lymphocytic mastitis observed as hard firm udders that produce little to no milk. Should consider this agent in any goat with chronic wasting disease
how far do you separate infected form non-infected goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis?
2 metres (in Canada); 6.56167979 feet in the US
what is a common sequela to bacterial pneumonia in goats?
otitis media
what causes bacterial pneumonia in
- sheep?
- goats?
Mannheimia haemolytica in sheep and M haemolytica and P. multocida in goats
what do small ruminant lungs look like when they died of bacterial pneumonia?
cranioventral consolidation of the lung field with variable amounts of pleural fluid and fibrinous adhesions
what antibiotic do you not use in goats?
tilmicosin
what are three antibiotics used to treat bacterial pneumonia in small ruminants?
Sulfas and Tetracyclines, Florfenicol
what is a non-Pasteurellaceae bacterial pneumonia of goats?
Mycoplasma: M. ovipneumoniae, M capricolum, ***M mycoides subsp. mycoides
what goats are most susceptible to Mycoplasma infection
kids
what are other clinical signs of Mycoplasma pneumonia in kids?
1. encephalitis
2. joint infection
how do kids get Mycoplasma mycoides ss mycoides?
unpasteurized milk
what is a potential vector for Mycoplasma infection in goats?
ear mites
what two antibiotics can you use to treat Mycoplasma bacterial pneumonia in kids and route of admin?
Tylosin or LA 200 (initially do IV and give slowly)
what causes CA in sheep and goats?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
which lymph nodes are affected by CA in
- sheep?
- goats?
external in goats and internal in sheep
what are clinical signs of caseous lymphadenitis (CA)?
chronic weight loss in sheep and goats, enlargement of external lymph nodes. May have a chronic non-responsive cough due to pulmonary abscess and enlargement of mediastinal nodes. Chronic pneumonia with clinical signs of dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and weight loss.
what do lymph nodes and lungs look like PM, in small ruminants with CA?
abscesses within lymph nodes and lung, concentric configuration, greenish in color
how do you test a live animal for CA?
Serological testing available, Hemolysis Synergistic Inhibition Test , ELISA, AGID
how is CA most commonly spread?
Organism is spread through wounds during shearing and dipping of animals in vats for parasite control
comment on lavage of abscesses in sheep/goats with CA
don’t open abscesses in common use areas. Organism survives in the environment for months
when should you and should you not vaccine small ruminants for CL?
Vaccine is available (can have anaphylactic reaction if they are already infected; vaccinate before 2 mos; doesn’t prevent infection, just prevents abscesses)
when does verminous pneumonia most commonly occur in small ruminants (age and weather)?
a) Animals 2 to 18 months of age are most susceptible
b) Most outbreaks occur during cool seasons
how do you treat verminous pneumonia in small ruminants?
Benzimidazoles and avermectins
if a pneumonia in small ruminants is non-responsive to treatment with a/b, what might you suspect?
verminous pneumonia