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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are varicose veins
Dilated, tortuous superficial veins (usually greater and lesser saphenous)due to incompetent valves
Factors that promote DVT
stasis, abnormal vessel wall, altered coagulation
leg trauma, prolonged bed rest,CHF, cancer, obesity, surgery, central lines, medical illnesses, venous insufficiency, OCP’s, etc
Classic signs of DVT are seen how often?
Classic signs of pain, swelling, warmth present only 50% of the time
what is a complication of DVT?
Pulmonary Embolism
Treatment of DVT
intravenous infusion of UHF of LMWH for 5-10 days start
Coumadin before DC of heparin and given for 3 months
what is Virchow’s Triad?
Seen in PE:

vessel wall inflammation
The Most Common ECG abnormalities of PE
nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities
What is superior vena cava syndrome
A partial occlusion of the superior vena cava.
75% secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, the remainder are lymphoma generated.
what is Afterload?
Load against which the contracting myocardium exerts its force (Aortic pressure).
What is a WAP?
when pacemaker site shifts back and forth between the SA node and the ectopic sites in the atria or AV junction, producing P waves of varying size, shape, and direction.
The heart rate is usually 60-100 bpm
3 different P wave morphologies
what is a MAT
when a WAP reaches 100 bpm or greater, the rhythm is MAT
what is a PAT
PAT is often initiated by a PAC.
By definition 3 or more PAC’s is considered to be PAT.
PAT is a regular tachycardia with an atrial rate of 150-250 bpm
What is an SVT
SVT occurs when a rapid atrial ectopic focus overrides the SA node and becomes the heart’s primary pacemaker.
SVT then is if the rate is >150 bpm
what is a PSVT
PSVT is an absolutely regular rhythm, with a rate usually between 150-250 bpm
what's the difference between LGL and WPW?
both have a shortened PRI but LGL has NO delta waves and the QRS is NOT widened.
Criteria for LVH
R in V5 or V6 +
S in V1 or V2 >35mm

aVL > 13mm
Atrial enlargement
Strain Pattern
what lead is best to eval Atrial enlargement?
EKG changes in Hyperkalemia
Progressive pattern:

Diffuse ‘Peaked’ T waves
Prolonged PR interval with flattening of P wave
QRS widens with merging into T wave forming a ‘Sine wave’ pattern
EKG changes in Hypokalemia
Progressive Pattern
1. Diffuse Flattening of the T wave (c possible diffuse ST segment depression or T wave inversion)
2. Appearance of the U wave
3. Torsades de Pontes
EKG changes in Hypocalcemia
1. Prolonged QT interval
2. Torsades de Pontes
EKG changes in hypercalcemia
Shortened QT interval
Venous return is influenced
Muscle contraction
Sympathetic activation of veins
respiratory inspiration

Valsalva and pregnancy reduce venous return
Jxn escape rhythm characteristics
1. negative or hidden P wave in lead II
2. Short PR interval <0.10 sec
3. A normal QRS complex
4. 40-60 bpm
what causes RVH?
caused by right ventricular overload due to pulmonary valve stenosis, tricuspid insufficiency, or pulmonary hypertension. Can also be caused by congenital abnormalities such as VSD
calibration of EKG
should equal 1 mV or two big boxes
what is Einthoven's triangle
it's made up of leads I, II, III
Right/left arms
Left foot
what determines stroke volume
1. The volume of venous blood returned to the heart(preload)
2. Ventricular distensibility/contractility(Frank-Starling)
3. Aortic or pulmonary artery pressure (afterload)
How do you treat SVT?
1. vagal maneuvers (valsalva (squatting/ bearing down), cough, and carotid massage),
2. Adenosine IV,
3. Ca channel blockers (cardizem)
4. procainamide
5. Beta Blockers
6. Digitalis
7. Cardioversion
when would you not cardiovert a pt?
1. In A-fib with an onset > 48 hours
2. In a PSVT from Digitalis Toxicity
What are EKG changes with Dig Toxicity
Dali's Mustache(assymetrical T inversion w/downsloping ST segments)
SA & AV blocks
PAC’s & PVC’s
Atrial and ventricular tachycardia (arrhythmias)
As a class, they are responsible for more drug-related deaths than any other medications
Conditions that cause low voltage on EKG
Pericardial effusion
There's a couple more that I can't think of right now