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7 Cards in this Set

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Identify "objective" signs of cardiac disease
1. cardiac murmurs (except "functional" murmurs in some normal dogs and "physiological" murmurs from anemia or high output states)
2. rhythm disturbances(except sinus arrhythmias)
3. jugular pulsations
4. cardiac enlargement
Identify "subjective" signs of cardiac disease
1. syncope
2. excessively strong or weak arterial pulses
3. cough or respiratory difficulty
4. exercise intolerance
5. cyanosis
What is "heart failure"?
the state where the heart can no longer meet the circulatory demands of the body... OR... can only meet them at high cardiac filling pressures
1.Can signs of heart disease be present without the state of heart failure?

2. Is heart failure a specific disease?
1. Yes
2. No, it is a clinical syndrome
Steps in a cardiac exam
1. Signalment, history, environment, diet, etc
2. Observation/general physical exam
3. Check mucous membranes
4. check arterial pulses
5. check jugular veins
6. Palpation of the precordium
7. Auscultation
4 pathophysiologic groups of heart failure
1) myocardial failure
2) increased cardiac workload (volume overload)
3) Increased cardiac workload (pressure overload)
4) Reduced ventricular compliance (impaired filling)
4 pathophysiologic groups of heart failure
1) myocardial failure
2) increased cardiac workload (volume overload)
3) Increased cardiac workload (pressure overload)
4) Reduced ventricular compliance (impaired filling)