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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Path of the cardio conduction system:
SA node (pacemaker)-Bachmann's bundle - AV node - Bundle of HIS- bundle branches-Purkinje fibers.
Identify the BPM of:
SA node
AV node
Purkinje fibers
60-100 BPM
40-60 BPM
30-40 BPM
The p wave shows:
atrial contraction (atrial depolarization)
The PR interval shows:
time from the firing of SA node until the impulse reaches AV node
0.12-0.20 sec
The QRS complex shows:
ventricular contraction (atrial repolarization)
0.08-0.12 sec
T wave shows:
ventricular repolarization
QT interval:
Length of time from ventricular depolarization to ventricular repolarization.
Varies inversely w/ HR
What nerve reduces HR?
The vagus nerve (parasympathetic), using acetylcholine.
What is the Frank-Starling law?
Relates resting sarcomere length (volume of blood at end/ diastole) to force of contraction in systole.
Stretch of Heart = force/contraction
*only good to certain point*
What is Laplace's law?
Amt. / tension in ventricle depends on size (radius and thickness) of ventricle.
What is Poiseuille's Formula?
Resistance to fluid flow through a tube takes into account the length of the tube, the viscosity of the fluid, and the radius of tube's lumen
Pressure in left ventricle at end of diastole.
= volume of ventricle
Resistance to blood ejection from left ventricle.
Stroke Volume
Amt./blood per contraction
60-100 ml/beat
Cardiac output
HR x SV = 4-6 L/min
Ejection fraction
amt/ blood ejected from ventricle during contraction
norm= 60-75%
heart sound 1
lub--closure of AV valves
heart sound 2
dub--closure of semi-lunar valves
heart sound 3
vibration of vent. walls--increased filling of ventricles. Normal to age 30
heart sound 4
rushing blood into a stiffened ventricle
turbulent blood through abnorm. valve
inflamed pericardium
opening of stiff stenotic AV valve
same as snap, but for semi-lunar valves.
turbulent blood at low pressure. Usually venous.
What is the fundamental originator of atherosclerosis?
inflmmation (injured endothelials-foam cells-fatty streak-free rads-fibrous plaque-complicated lesion)
What is stable angina?
Recurrent and predicatable pain, transient, due to ischemia. May radiate--commonly dismissed as indigestion.
Usually relieved w/ rest or nitrates.
What is prinzmental angina?
Unpredictable pain--usually at rest. Transient vasospasm of coronary artery(ies).
What is silent ischemia?
Asymptomatic ischemia. Often occurs w/ DM, Cardio neuropathy, or mental stress.
What is unstable angina?
Sudden pain; result of reversible ischemia and a sign of impending infarction.
What is ventilation?
mechanical movement of gas (breathing)
What is respiration?
exchange of gases in cells
What is the respiratory center?
Found in brain stem
DRG= normal regulation
VRG= during increased rate (exercise, e.g.)
What is the role of surfactant?
reduces surface tension (reverses Laplace's Law: With surfactant present, <radius= <surface tension; >radius= > surface tension)
What are two abnormalities of lung compliance?
too great compliance; = diff. expiration
too little compliance; = diff. inspiration
V/Q ratio
Relationship between ventilation and perfusion.
Norm. = 0.8 (perfusion = greater than ventilation)
*important for dx PTE*
What is normal adult RR?
12-20 breaths per min.
What is an oxyhemoglobin "shift to the left"?
(think L for lungs)
lungs have increased affinity for O2.
can= alkalosis, hypocapnia, hypothermia
What is an oxyhemoglobin "shift to the right"?
Increased body tissue affinity for O2.
can= acidosis, hypercapnia, hyperthermia
What are normal ABGs?
pH: 7.35-7.45
pCO2: 35-45 mm/Hg
pO2: 80-100 mm/Hg
HCO3: 22-26 mEq/L
O2 sat: 96-98%

*normally taken from radial artery--always done w/ arterial blood*
What are the basic means of treatment for pulmonary ailments?
O2; CPAP; D/C smoking; medication, exercise, surgery
What are hypertensive BPs?
Pre-hyper = 120-139/80-89
Stage 1 = 140-159/90-99
Stage 2 = 160+/100+
What are common S/S of emphysema?
dyspnea, barrel chest, prolonged expiration.
Late Disease = productive cough, hypoventilation, PV, Cor pulmonale
What are CA pneumonia organisms?
Strep pneumoniae
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Inflienza virus
What are HA pneumonia organisms?
Pseudomonas aerugenosa
Staph aureus

*HIV = Pnuemocystis carnii*