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50 Cards in this Set

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Patency
opening that should close upon birth....results in murmer
2 common defects of patency
ASD
Foramen stays open instead of closing at birth
greater pressure of left atrium...pushes blood into rigt atrium...greater volume of blood goes into lungs..may have congestion
VSD
Most common heart defect
muscle of ventricular wall doesnt completely grow together...excessive blood going into lungs.
Venous disease
lead to problems related to blood pooling in peripheral veins...known as venous stasis or venous congestion
Arterial disease
lead to problems related to ischemia....associated with narrowing of arterial vessels
Venous insufficiency
problems with backflow.
veins have valves..venous insuficiency is floppy valves
Venous thrombus
DVT
Virchow's triad-
injury to endothelium vein
stasis of blood flow
hypercoagulability
Thrombophlebitis
vein inflammation due to thrombus.
venous embolus
part of thrombus that breaks off
Coumadin
decreases bodys ability to clot by diminishing ability of vitamin k to participate in synthesis of prothrombin.
Heparin
combines with antithrombin to block thrombin
Arteriosclerosis
Chronic disease in which artery walls become thick and harden
Atherosclerosis
fatty deposit......DECREASED PERFUSION
Hypertension
consistent elevation of systemic arterial blood
PRIMARY HTN- or idiopathic..most common.
SECONDARY HTN- caused by disease process such as a tumor.
Patho of HTN
Overactivity of sympathetic nervous system and
overactivity of RAAS
Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
disease of arterial vessels outside the heart....usually caused by hypertension..
ischemic pain
fem-pop bypass.
Aneurysms
localized dilation or outpouching of arterial vessel wall.
PAD and HTN increase risk
brain and aorta susceptible
Arterial thrombi
forms in pockets where arterial flow is sluggish or where artery walls are injured
Sinoatrial node
just above tricuspid valve...AKA pacemaker of the heart...60-100 beats per min. Gets nourishment from right coronary artery.
Cardiac output
4-6 ml/min
4 factors: preload, afterload,HR, and contractility.
Preload
Blood in circulatory system.....blood coming back to the heart.
veins and volume
Afterload
arteries and resistance
resistance to ejection of blood from ventricles.
SVR
afterload to the left ventricle ejection of blood.
Increase in SVR- VASOCONSTRICTION CO DECREASES
Decrease in SVR- VASODILATION
CO INCREASES
PVR
afterload to the right ventricle ejection of blood
Increase in PVR VASOCONSTRICTION
Inotrope
anything that affects the contractility of the heart.
Bradycardia
less than 60 beats per minute
Tachycardia
greater than 100 beats per minute
PVC
Early beat that originates in the ventricles instead of SA node.....feels like heart skipping a beat.
VFIB
Causes ventricles to quiver instead of contracting.
Hypokalemia
hyperpolarizes myocardial cells making it harder for SA node to fire....sluggish heart.
Hyperkalemia
Renal problems because kidneys cant excrete K normally
CAD
Coronary artery disease
A vascular disorder that narrows or occludes the coronary arteries.
Link between CAD and elevated levels of homocysteine
Infarction
tissue necrosis that is due to ischemia
Angina
pain can radiate to left arm, jaw, and back.\buildup of lactic acid.
RCA
feeds oxygen and nutrients to right ventricle and posterior portion of heart and SA node.
LCA
feeds oxygen and nutrients to left artium and ventricle.
CAD Classification
stable angina and acute coronary syndrome
stable angina
slow development of plaque..may only form with vigorous exercise...symptoms go away when one NTG tablet is taken.
acute coronary syndrome
sudden plaque development or worsening of existing plaque...manifested by unstable angina or myocardial infarction
unstable angina
someone with stable angina develops a change for the worse...may need 3 NTG tabs
Myocardial infarction
higher troponin level ..more extensive the damage.
acute pericarditis
inflammation of outer lining of heart....causes irritation of the membranes and increases the amount of pericardial fluid. can be caused by autoimmune disorders or a sequela of MI. Chest pain when lying down.
Endocarditis
caused when bacteria or other microbe enters the heart via bloodstream.
rheumatic fever
autoimmune disease triggered after strep infection
stenosis
narrowing, stiffness...adversely affects full opening...chanber behind must work harder to eject blood.
LHF
Left heart failure
AKA Congestive heart failure...left ventricle is unable to generate adequate CO.
Symptoms are lung related problems
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
RHF
Right heart failure
LHF is the most common cause of RHF....when RHF is caused by a lung process known as Cor Pulmonale
BNP
Measures heart failure....BNP is triggered when we have fluid overload.
shock
inadequate perfusion of tissues...usually do to hypotension.
Cardiogenic shock
shock occurs when there is inadequate cardiac output.
would give a positive inotrope.