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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rapid breathing
tachypnea
inability to breath except in upright postition
orthopnea
decreased alveolar ventilation

increase in CO2
hypoventilation
normal breathing
eupnea
short rapid breathing episodes interrupted by 10-30 sec pause
biot's respiration
spontanous breathing
apnea
pt knows breathing is difficult
dyspnea
increased alveolar ventilation that causes decrease in PaCO2
hyperventilation
increased rate and depth of breathing caused by a diabetic ketoacidosis
kussmaul's repiration
Vt
tidal volume
IRV
inspiratory Reserve Volume
ERV
expiratory reserve volume
RV
RESIDUAL VOLUME
VC
VITAL CAPACITY
IC
INSPIRATORY CAPACITY
FRC
FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY
TLC
TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY
gas movement in and out of the lung
ventilation
pressure difference between 2 points in the tube or vessels
driving pressure
vol of air that normally moves into and out of the lungs in one quiet breath
vt
the maximum vol of air that can be inhaled after a normal vt inhalation
IRV
max vol of air that can be exhaled after normal vt exhalation
ERV
AMT OF AIR REMAIN IN THE LUNGS AFTER MAXIMAL EXHALATION
RV
MAX VOL OF AIR THAT CAN BE EXHALED AFTER A MAXIMAL INSPIRATION
VITAL CAPACITY
SLOW VITAL AND FORCED VITAL
vol of air remaining in lungs after normal Exhalation
FRC
max amt of air that lungs can accomidate
TLC
% OF THE RV OCCUPIED BY THE RV
RV/TLC RATIO
NORMAL RANGE FOR Raw IS BETWEEN _____ TO ____ CM H2O/L/SEC
1.0-2.0 CM H2O/L/SEC
when is static compliance determined during periods of flow or no flow
no flow
when is dynamic compliance determined during periods of flow or no flow
flow
I:E ratio
1:2
normal breaths per minute?
15
vt + IRV=
IC
AVG ADULT FEMALES VC? AND MALES?
F: 75% OF TLC M:80%
APPROXIMATE RV IN THE AVG ADULT MALE IS ?
20%
FORMULA FOR ANATOMIC DEAD SPACE
1mL/lb of ideal body weight
formula for lung compliance
v/p
formula for Raw
p/flow
VT+ERV+IRV=
VC
RV+ERV=
FRC
ERV+RV+IRV+VT
TLC
AVG Vt IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULT
8-10% OF TLC
LUNG DX CHARACTERIZED BY LOSS OF LUNG VOL, DECREASE LUNG COMPLIANCE, REDUCTION OF TLC IS?
RESTRICTIVE
FEV1, FEF 25-75% ARE CALCULATED BY??
FVC
WHEN RAW INCREASES WHAT HAPPENS TO RR AND VT??? INCREASE,DEDCREASE
INCREASE IN RR AND DECREASE IN VT
INCREASED AIR TRAPPING, DECREASES PEFR AND INCREASED RV.....IS IT OBSTRUCTIVE OR RESTRICTED DX?????
OBSTRUCTIVE
DURING NORMAL INHALATION & EXPIRATION PLURAL PRESSURE IS??? (3)
1. ALWAYS SUBATMOSPHERIC
2.DYNAMIC (NEVER THE SAME)
3. PLURAL AND AVEOLAR PRESSURE NEVER THE SAME
DURING EXPIRATION PLURAL PRESSURE IS??? (2)
1. LESS SUBATMOSPHERIC
2. ALVEOLAR PRESSURE BECOMES GREATER TAHN ATMOSPHERIC
INCREASE SURFACE TENSION=INCREASE DISTENDING PRESSURE
LAPLACE
DISTENDING PRESSURE IS DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SURFACE TENSION OF A LIQUID??
DIRECTLY (LAPLACE'S LAW)
SURFACE TENSION IN ALVEOLAR=??? DYNES
70
RADIUS OF SPHERE IS PROPORTIONAL OR INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO DISTENDING P???
INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL
ALVEOLAR INFLATION PRESSURE INCREASES AS TEH RADIUS OF THE AVEOLAR CURVATURE??? INCREASE OR DECREASES
DECREASES
DEAD SPACE=VENTILATES BUT DOES NOT PERFUSE (DOESN'T JUMP ON THE BUS)
VENTILATION=GAS MVMNT
DIFFUSION=GAS EXCHANGE
PERFUSSION=JUMPING ON THE BUS
OXYGENATION=LOADING OFF THE BUS
AT INHALATION WHAT HAPPENS TO SURFACE TENSION, SIZE OF ALVEOLUS AND SURFACTANT??
ST DECREASES, AVEOLOUS INCREASES AND SURFACTANT PROPORTION DECREASES
POISEULLE

DECREASE RADIUS=INCREASE PRESSURE
POISEULLE

PRESSURE WILL DECREASE IN RESPONSE TO DECREASED FLOW RATE,INCREASED TUBE LENGHTH OR VISCOSITY
AVG VT???
3 TO 4 Ml/lb
increased Raw or increased lung complance = increase or decrease time constant????
increased
most effective way to increase alveolar minute ventialtion???
breath deeper
normal Vt per lb??
3-4 ml/lb
RV=???% of TLC
20
RV remains constant regardless of ventilation manuver
increased RV=obstructive dx
closing volume is used for what??
early diagnosis of obstruction in the sm airways,ventilation distribution and anatomic airway deadspace
amt of gas in lungs when sm airways begin to close during exhalation
CV
FEF 25-75% MAKES UP???
CLOSING VOLUME
MOUTH PRESSURE-ALVEOLAR PRESSURE=

Pm-Palv=
TRANSAIRWAY PRESSURE
Pta
Palv-Ppl=

alveolar pressure-pleural pressure=
transpulmonary
Ptp
causes of surfactant deficiency??? (5)
acidosis
atelectasis
hypoxia
hyperoxia
pulmonary vascular congestion
avg lung compliance for each breath???? _____l/cm H20
0.1