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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
causes of SBE
strep viridans, group D strep (mutans), enteroccoi
wolf parkinson white
accessory pathway that leads to preexcitation of the ventricle, causing a slurring of the upstroke on the QRS complex (delta wave),
contraction bands
occur at edges of cells within 2-4 hours of MI secondary to repurfusion
Eisenmenger's syndrome
cyanosis and subsequent symptoms from a reversal of a left to right shunt to a right to left shunt, generally occurs because of a buildup of pressure in the pulmonary system
Mobitz Type I
defect in the AV node
Mobitz Type II
defect below the AV node (His-purkinje defect)
beta blockers and renin
JGA has Beta1 receptors, addition of beta blockers inhibits the release of renin
Beta 1 selective blockers
"A BEAM of Beta 1 blockers": Acebutolol, Betaxolol, Esmolol, Atenolol, Metoprolol
paradoxical S2 splitting
aortic stenosis or left bundle branch block, when the closing of the aortic valve is delayed
widened S2 splitting
pulmonic valve stenosis or right bundle branch block, there may be a delay in closing of the pulmonic valve
valves and leaflets
mitral = bicuspid, tricuspid, aortic = three cusps; pulmonary = three cusps
arteriolar rarefaction
dissolution and loss of arterioles - occurs secondary to sustained hypertension and causes a decrease in arteriolar density
Ebstein's anomaly
congenital heart defect in which the opening of the tricuspid valve is displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart., associated with lithium use in utero
loeffler endocarditis
presence of endomyocardial fibrosis with myocyte necrosis and prominent eosinophilic infiltrate, appears to be the result of a direct toxicity to the heart by proteins in eosinophil granules designed to kill large parasites
alcoholic cardiomyopathy
dilated heart
cardiac amyloidosis
restrictive pattern, biopsy would show red extracellular deposits
endocardial fibroelastosis
potentially an effet of intrauterine infection (mumps?); endocardium thickens secondary to marked increase in fibrous and elastic tissue which may extend into the ventricle, see thick white endocardium. May see mural thrombi, flattened trabeculae, and abnormal (usually stenosed) valves; occurs in infantile and adolescent forms
idiopathic subaortic stenosis
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
coxsackie myocarditis
flabby myocardium, patchy areas of hemorrhage, four chamber dilation, also see inflammation of pericardial membrane and potential friction rub
fibrous bridging between thickened calcified leaflets
valvular damage in rheumatic fever, "fishmouth" or "button hole" stenotic morphology
ballooning of valve leaflets
mitral valve prolapse
irregular beads of calcification in annulus
calcification of mitral annulus seen in elderly
large bulky vegetation ith adjacent leaflet production
acute bacterial endocarditis
tiny vegetations along line of closure of valve leaflet
marantic (nonbacterial thrombotic) endocarditis
calcific aortic stenosis calcium salt composition
calcium phosphate (result of dystrophic calcification)
most commonly found congenital heart disease in adults, atrial fibrillation is common as is a widesplit s2 and a systolic ejection murmur over the upper left sternal border
papillary fibroelastoma
non neoplastic, usually clinically silent, form from organized thrombi on endocardial surfaces of the mitral valve or left ventricular cavity, papillary structure with core of fibrous tissue lined by thicked endothelium
nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis histology
aggregated of fibrin (few inflammatory cells)
sixth aortic arch
amount of oxygen heart normally uses in coronary circulation
EKG leads
inferior: II, III, aVF; septal: V1, V2; Anterior: V3, V4; lateral: I, aVL, V5, V6;
one umbilical artery
nonspecific but suggests an underlying CV abnormality
two umbilical veins
extremely rare, not associated with any CV abnormality
best diuretic for pulmonary edema
furosemide because it has vasorelaxing effects in the pulmonary vasculature
coarctation and flow to lower body
fully compensated coarctation --> flow in upper and lower body are equal but vascular resistance in lower body is lower
amitriptyline SE
hypertensive emergency firstline agent
sodium nitroprusside, labetalol
taussig-bing malformation
aorta arises from right ventricle and pulmonary artery overrides a VSD
infantile coarctation
associated with PDA