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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
heart failure resulting b/c of myocardial dysfunction that impairs the heart's ability to circulate blood at a rate suffiecient to maintain the metabolic needs of peripheral tissue and various organs
right sided heart failure
peripheral edema
hepatojugular reflux
left sided heart failure
S3 (very diagnostic)
pulmonary congestion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
mental status changes
decreased urine output
cold extremeties
results from the inflammation of pericardium and in some cases the development of an effusion b/w the myocardium and pericardium
cardiac tamponade
exists when increased intrapericardial pressure from the accumulation of fluids compromise the filling of the heart and therby impairs ccardiac output
triphasic friction rub
3 components
atrial contraction
ventricular systole (mose consistant)
early diastole
restrictive cardiomyopathy
-signs and symp. of HF with frequent dominant right sided findings

-diastolic ventricular f(x)al abnormalities suggestive of reduced vent. compliance

-normal-to-small size ventricles

-atria dilated on echo
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
-systolic ejection murmur (sounds like aortic stenosis)

-left ventricular hypertrophy

-hyperkinetic left vent. systolic funtion
Dilated cardiomyopathy
end result of HTDZ of any type with a generalized 4 chamber cardiac enlargement

decreased right and left vent. systolic performance which can lead to stasis in any cardiac chamber (thromo/emboli) risk for clots
Systolic Ejection Murmur

aortic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
General treatment of CHF
-treat underline prob (revasculature, HTN, DM)
-ensure O2/ gas exchange (O2& ASA)
-avoid over diuresis (low NA+ diet, fluid restrictions, K+ supplaments, Is & Os, monitor electrolytes)
-diuretics (preload)
-+ve inotropic agents (digitalis-CHF & a. fib)
-vasodilators (if still symptomatic after dig and diuretics)
-IV sympathomimetics
-Nitrates (venodilators/ afterload)
-ACE(afterload/ neurohumoral antagonist)
Treatment of CHF
O2, diuretics, nitrates, morphine
mechanical ventilation
IV sympathomimetics
rule-out reversible causes
teatment of pericarditis
-treat the underline causes

-NSAIDS (if doesn't work- steroids or colchicine (prophalaxis of recurrent))

-pericardiocentesis (take fluid out but would 1st confirm with an echo or MRI)
treatment of resstrictive cardiomyopathy
diuretics (preload)
nitrates (afterload-venodilators)
coumadin (prevent clots)
treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
-beta blockers and CCB = for dypnea and angina (not working= digitalis for a-fib)
nitro-contra and diuretics- cautioned

-surgery (remove band)

-pacemaker implantation (pt's develope BBB)

Treatment of Dilated cardiomyopathy
heart treansplant

Aortic Stenosis (AS)
-heard best in the 2nd R ICS

-radiates to carotids; crescendo-decres

-S2 (A2) is decreased

-S3 often heard

-most common cause in a bicuspid valve (congenital)

-senile calcific and rheumatic fever
Pulmonic Stenosis (PS)

-heard best over pulmonic area 2nd LICS

-increases with inspiration

-widely split S2

Mitral Regurg (MR)

-loudest at mitral area and radiates into the axilla

-caused by HTN, rheumatic fever, MI
Tricuspid Regurg (TR)

radiates into the R chest

increases with inspiration
Aortic insufficiency (AI)
-best heard over aortic area radiating to LSB and apex



-caused by rheumatic fever, Marfans, aortitis, HTN
Pulmonic Insufficiency (PI)

-heard best in pulmonic area (COPD)
Mitral Stenosis (MS)
-DIASTOLIC RUMBLE with presystolic accentuation if in NSR

-Loud P2 (pulmonary HTN)

-Opening snap and soft S1

-rheumatic fever almost exclusively

-Austin-Flint murmur
Tricuspid STenosis (TS)

heard best in tricuspid area

Patent ductus arteriosus,
coarctation of aorta
2nd L ICS (loudest)
Ventricular septal defect
doesn't radiate

much louder (post MI, infants) at the LSB
bluish tinge (cyano) to the tips (acro) of the extremities
Blood Pressure
pressure of the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels. top # indicates the pressure during contraction of the heart, or systole; the bottom # indicates the pressure during relaxation, or diastole
abnormal heart sound heard by listening with a stethoscope

turbulence (murmur) heard anywhere else but the heart
condition (osis) in which there is an outpouring of fluid (chym) that is blood under the skin resulting in a purple spot
the heart contracts (systole) more often (extra) that it should: the heart does not get an opportunity to relax before the next contraction starts. sometimes referred to as premature contraction of the heart
Circulatory collapse
sudden failure (collapse) of the circulatory system and repiratory system resulting ina profound degree of shock
AV Block treatment:
acute situation
neurovascular syncope
-atropine and isoproterenol: useful in increasing HR and decreasing symptoms in pt's with sinus bradycardia or AV block localized to the AV node

-beta blockers and disopyramide to depress left ventricular function and decrease mechanoreceptor- related reflexes
AV Blocks treatment:

Long-term therapy for bradyarrhythmias
best accomplished by pacemakers
(esp. 3 degree AV block)
Atrial dysrhythmias treatment:

remove precipitating factors (coffee, stress, etc)
atrial dysrhythmia treatment:

Atrial Flutter
the most effective treatment is direct-current cardioversion (shock)

(worry about clots so treat with coumadin)
atrial dysrhythmia treatment:

Atrial Fibrillation
(acute situations, in absece of severe cardiovascular compromise, prior to cardioversion, and pt's should always take)
-treatment of precitpitating factors 1st
(fever, throtoxicosis, etc)

-elctrical cardioversion is treatment of choice (shock)

-slowing of ventricular rate becomes the initial therapeutic goal (with bb or ccb)

-precautions must be taken to reduce the risk of systemic embolization

-pt's should be anticoagulated
atrial dysrhythmia treatment:

SVT (atrial tachycardia):
in pt's w/o hypotensiion and w/ it
-vagal maneuvers, particularly carotid sinus massage, can terminate the arrhythmia in 80% of cases

-raising the BP will eliminate the abnormal rhythm
ventricular dysrhythmia treatment:

PVC: asympto
symptomatic (w/HD)
(asympto): no treatment if causative agents/ heart dis. has been ruled out)

(sympto): beta blockers
ventricular dysrhythmia treatment:

V-Tach: if tolerating rhythm
if symptomatic
- lidocaine, procainamide, amiodarone

ventricular dysrhythmia treatment:

cardioversion (shock)
ventricular dysrhythmia treatment:

cardioversion (shock)
tumor (oma) consisting of blood (hem) vessels (angi). also called an angioma
dilated vein filled with blood (hemo) in the area of the anal sphincter