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113 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Consistant elevation of systemic arterial pressure
hypertension
top number of blood pressure reading
systolic
bottom number of blood pressure reading
diastolic
normal blood pressure
120/80
the only early clinical manifestation of hypertension
elevated BP
late manifestations of hypertension cause damage to what organs?
eyes, kidneys, brain
treatment for hypertension
lifestyle modification and drug therapy
decrease in both systolic and diastolic BP measurements
orthostatic hypotension
clinical manifestations of orthostatic hypotension
dizziness, blurred vision, syncope (fainting)
How do you prevent orthostatic hypotension?
slow position changes and maintaining fluid status
localized dilation of a vessel wall or cardiac chamber
aneurysm
most common cause of an aneurysm
atherosclerosis
most common site of an aneurysm
abdominal aorta
Manifestations of an aneurysm are usually ____ until they rupture.
asymptomatic
Symptoms of an aneurysm mimic a ______.
kidney stone
Treatment for aneurysms include...
prevention of hypertension, smoking cessation, surgery if > 5cm
obstruction of a vessel caused by air, amniotic fluid, fat, bacteria, cancer, blood clot
embolism
____ embolism comes from the right heart chamber.
Pulmonary
____ embolism comes from the left heart chamber.
Arterial
An embolus will lead to ___ of the affected area.
ischemia
What two main complications will an embolus lead to?
CVA (stroke), MI (heart attack)
Treatment for embolism includes what?
anticoagulant therapy, hospitalization, arterial catheterization if total occlusion is present
inflammation of the pericardium
acute pericarditis
What is the most common cause of acute pericarditis?
infection
causes of actue pericarditis
infection, uremia, neoplasm, MI, surgery, trauma
symptoms of acute pericarditis
severe chest pain, low grade fever, tachycardia, friction rub
accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity
pericardial effusion
usually occurs with pericarditis
pericardial effusion
can result in tamponade (decreased cardiac output due to increased size of sack) and heart failure
pericardial effusion
valve fails to close completely and blood leaks back "upstream"
mitral valve prolapse
In what disorder is a loud murmur heard?
mitral valve prolapse
Develops slowly from rheumatic heart disease, conginital malformation or calcium deposits
aortic stenosis
Impairs blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle. Results in atrial dysrhythmias and thrombus formation.
mitral stenosis
If left untreated, this can result in pulmonary hypertension, edema, and right ventricular failure
mitral stenosis
inadequate gas exchage

(PaO2<50, PaCO2>50, pH<7.25)
acute respiratory failure
causes of acute respiratory failure
inadequate ventilation or O2 exchange; can be combination of both
occurs frequently in patients who are mechanically ventilated in ICU
acute respiratory failure
treatment for acute respiratory failure
immunomodulators, anitbiotics
water in lungs
pulmonary edema
causes of pulmonary edema
heart disease, left heart failure, injury to capillaries, obstruction of lymphatic system
manifestations of pulmonary edema
dyspnea, hypoxemia, crackles on inspiration, frothy sputum, increased PaCO2
treatment for pulmonary edema
get rid of fluid then treat cause
passage of a foreign substance into the lungs
aspiration
Alterations in swallowing result in _____.
aspiration
Aspiration will quickly turn into _____ if left without antibiotics.
pneumonia
collapse of the lung tissue
atelectasis
Cough, dyspnea, fever, and increased WBC count are all manifestations of what disorder?
atelectasis
What is the preventative treatment for atelectasis?
deep breathing exercises and turning patients who are bed bound
inflammatory obstruction of the bronchioles (occurs mostly in children)
bronchiolitis
Bronchiolitis is usually preceded by a _____.
URI (upper respiratory infection)
How is bronchiolitis treated?
antibiotics
persistant dilation of the bronchi from another disease process
bronchiectasis
Large volumes of sputum, recurrent infections and decreased vital capacity are all manifestations of what disease?
bronchiectasis
presence of air or gas in the pleural space
pneumothorax
What kind of pneumothorax occurs from a penetrating wound through the chest to the pleural space?
open pneumothorax
What kind of pneumothorax occurs when an open wound draws airs into the pleural space during inspirtation but prevents air escape?
tension pneumothorax
With tension pneumothorax, as more air enters, tension builds and what two things can be displaced?
heart and mediastium
Severe hypoxemia, dyspnea, decreased BP and HR are all manifestations of what type of pneumothorax?
tension
What is treatment for tension pneumothorax?
needle decompression to chest tube placement
What type of pneumothorax occurs unexpectedly in healthy individuals (usually men 20-40 years old)?
spontaneous pneumothorax
What structure is formed and then ruptures in spontaneous pneumothorax?
bleb
Sudden pain, increased respiratory rate, dyspnea, and decreased breath sounds are manifestations of what type of pneumothorax?
spontaneous
fluid in the pleural space (can also cause compression atelectasis like pneumothorax)
pleural effusion
infection of the pleural space
empyema
What is treatment for empyema?
antibiotics and thoracentesis
inflammation of the pleura (preceded by URI)
pleurisy
What are symptoms of pleurisy?
fever, pain, chills
Treatment for pleurisy?
antibiotics
circumscribed area of pus and destruction of lung tissue
abscess
What is likely to occur with lung abscess?
necrosis of tissue
What is the most common cause of lung abscess?
pneumonia caused by aspiration
treatment for lung abscess
antibiotics, chest physiotherapy, bronchoscopy
too much connective tissue surrounding the lung
pulmonary fibrosis
What can occur with healing after other diseases and can cause lung compliance?
pulmonary fibrosis
Manifestations of pulmonary fibrosis result from _____.
hypoxemia
Treatment for pulmonary fibrosis is ______. _____ is key!
difficult, Prevention
The fracture of consecutive ribs in more than one space; Chest wall is unstable, impairing gas exchange.
flail chest
Pain, dyspnea and unequal chest expansion are manifestations of ____.
flail chest
What is treatment for flail chest?
mechanical ventilation until healing can occur
caused by injury to the lung resulting in lung inflammation and diffuse capillary injury
ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
Rapid breathing, hypoxemia, decreased blood pressure and death are manifestations of ____.
ARDS
What is treatment for ARDS?
mechanical ventilation, prophylactic immunotherapy, antibiotics
chronic inflammatory disorder (can occur in all ages)
asthma
In what disorder does inflammation result in hyper-responsiveness of the airways?
asthma
What disorder can be allergic in nature or exercised induced?
asthma
What is asymptomatic during remission periods?
asthma
During attacks, dyspnea, bronchospasm, wheezing, cough, and increased RR/HR are all signs of _____?
asthma
What is the treatment for asthma?
avoid allergens and irritants, exercise with caution, inhalers, immunotherapy
pathologic lung changes consistant with emphysema
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
What is caused primarily by cigarette smoke and is irreversible?
COPD
Treatment for COPD is similar to the management of what other disease?
asthma
permanent enlargement of gas-exchange airways that result in obstruction
emphysema
What is the most common cause of emphysema?
cigarette smoking
acute infection of the lower respiratory tract caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites
pneumonia
6th leading cause of death in the U.S.
pneumonia
Old age, lung disease, alcoholism, and smoking all increase the risk for _____.
pneumonia
What two ways can pneumonia be acquired?
community acquired or hospital acquired
fever, chills, cough, malaise, pleural effusion, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and increased WBC count are manifestations of _______.
pneumonia
What is treatment for pneumonia?
indentify the pathogen and give antibiotics
What is transmitted by droplets from one person to another?
Tuberculosis
What can be asyptomatic or manifest fatigue, weight loss, night sweats or low grade temp?
tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is treated with ____ for 6-12 months.
antibiotics
occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary bed by an embolus (blood, fat, air)
pulmonary embolism
What is the most common cause of a pulmonary embolism?
DVT (deep vein thrombosis) in the leg
Incresed HR/RR, dyspnea, anxiety, shock, hypotension and death are manifestations of ______.
pulmonary embolism
What is treatment for a pulmonary embolism?
blood gas analysis, VQ scan, D-dimer test, CT scan, anticoagulant therapy
High BP in the pulmonary arteries
pulmonary hypertension
What level of pulmonary hypertension may be genetic, usually occurs in women, and has a poor prognosis?
primary
What level of pulmonary hypertension occurs with pulmonary or cardiac disorder and can be reversed if causative condition is treated?
secondary
What disease is seen early on CXR or EKG with enlarged right ventricle, fatigue, chest pain, increased HR, dyspnea with exercise and a tricuspid murmur?
pulmonary hypertension
What is the only cure for pulmonary hypertension?
heart/lung transplant
pulmonary-heart disease caused by pulmonary hypertension creating pressure on the right ventricle, leading to right ventricle failure
cor pulmonale
The manifestations and treatment for cor pulmonale are the same as _____ _____.
pulmonary hypertension