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### 37 Cards in this Set

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 What electrical event does the P wave correspond to? Electrical: Depolarization of the atria What electrical event does the QRS wave correspond to? Electrical: Depolarization of both ventricles What electrical event does the T wave correspond to? Electrical: Repolarization of the ventricles What electrical event does the PR interval correspond to? Electrical: AV Nodal Delay What electrical event does the TP interval correspond to? Electrical: Time between action potentials Is left ventricular volume higher at ESV or EDV? ESV Describe the events between the P wave and half way through the T wave: The atrial valves open, allowing blood to come into the ventricles, when it is ejected into systemic circulation What events occurs at EDV? Isovolumetric ventricular contraction and the first heart sound (S1) This occurs during the second half of the T wave What event occurs at ESV? Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation and the second heart sound (S2) This is preceded by the QRS complex When does the ejection phase occur and what happens during it? It occurs after EDV, S1 sound, and the QRS complex. It also occurs during the ST interval. During it, aortic and L ventricular pressure peak and L ventricular volume drops rapidly while L atrial pressure drops a bit. What is the equation for Stroke Volume and what is it? SV = EDV-ESV; it is how much blood is pumped out during each contraction What is cardiac output and what is the equation for it? CO = SV x HR It is how much blood the heart pumps relative to heart rate. What is the equation for flow rate? F = Delta-P / Resistance What is the dicrotic notch? It is the temporary spike in aortic pressure during S2, directly after the ejection phase. Where do arterioles form? At the entrance of organs Viscosity is determined by: hematocrit levels (linear relationship) A doubling in vessel radius results in a () fold increase in flow. 16 Systolic pressure is: stretch of the artery walls caused by blood flow What energy moves blood along arteries and allows for perfusion? Rebound from stretch Arterial blood pressure is: the force of blood against the arteries What is the tendency for arteries to expand and stretch called? Compliance Distensibility is: the elastic nature of the blood vessels, causing stretch and rebound, providing force Pulse pressure is: the difference between diastolic and systolic pressure What is mean arterial pressure? The average pressure in an artery at any given time How is MAP calculated? Either diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure or MAP = CO x TPR Arterial and ventricular pressure are inversely/linearly related. Inversely Brachial taps during BP reading are a result of: the blood flow from each heart beat pushing against the arterial wall The smooth muscle wrapped around the arterioles determines: the radius of the arterioles depending on various factors What determines resting radius of arterioles? the inherent tone set by the smooth muscle surrounding them Intrinsic factors for arterioles include: local metabolic changes, histamine release, application of heat or cold, and myogenic response to strech What local metabolic changes in arterioles cause vasodilation? Lowered 02, increased CO2, lowered pH, and increased Adenosine (increased metabolism) What local metabolic changes in arterioles cause vasoconstriction? Increased 02, decreased CO2, increased pH, and decreased Adenosine (decreased metabolism) What is the local vasodilator in arterioles? Nitric oxide (works on smooth muscle) What is the local vasoconstrictor in arterioles? Endothelin (works on smooth muscle) Mean arterial pressure is analagous to: pressure gradient Total peripheral resistance is most influenced by: arteriolar resistance (greater diameter = lower resistance = lower TPR) Mean arterial pressure is calculated using the equation: MAP = CO x TPR