Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What electrical event does the P wave correspond to?
Electrical: Depolarization of the atria
What electrical event does the QRS wave correspond to?
Electrical: Depolarization of both ventricles
What electrical event does the T wave correspond to?
Electrical: Repolarization of the ventricles
What electrical event does the PR interval correspond to?
Electrical: AV Nodal Delay
What electrical event does the TP interval correspond to?
Electrical: Time between action potentials
Is left ventricular volume higher at ESV or EDV?
ESV
Describe the events between the P wave and half way through the T wave:
The atrial valves open, allowing blood to come into the ventricles, when it is ejected into systemic circulation
What events occurs at EDV?
Isovolumetric ventricular contraction and the first heart sound (S1)

This occurs during the second half of the T wave
What event occurs at ESV?
Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation and the second heart sound (S2)

This is preceded by the QRS complex
When does the ejection phase occur and what happens during it?
It occurs after EDV, S1 sound, and the QRS complex. It also occurs during the ST interval.

During it, aortic and L ventricular pressure peak and L ventricular volume drops rapidly while L atrial pressure drops a bit.
What is the equation for Stroke Volume and what is it?
SV = EDV-ESV; it is how much blood is pumped out during each contraction
What is cardiac output and what is the equation for it?
CO = SV x HR

It is how much blood the heart pumps relative to heart rate.
What is the equation for flow rate?
F = Delta-P / Resistance
What is the dicrotic notch?
It is the temporary spike in aortic pressure during S2, directly after the ejection phase.
Where do arterioles form?
At the entrance of organs
Viscosity is determined by:
hematocrit levels (linear relationship)
A doubling in vessel radius results in a () fold increase in flow.
16
Systolic pressure is:
stretch of the artery walls caused by blood flow
What energy moves blood along arteries and allows for perfusion?
Rebound from stretch
Arterial blood pressure is:
the force of blood against the arteries
What is the tendency for arteries to expand and stretch called?
Compliance
Distensibility is:
the elastic nature of the blood vessels, causing stretch and rebound, providing force
Pulse pressure is:
the difference between diastolic and systolic pressure
What is mean arterial pressure?
The average pressure in an artery at any given time
How is MAP calculated?
Either diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure or MAP = CO x TPR
Arterial and ventricular pressure are inversely/linearly related.
Inversely
Brachial taps during BP reading are a result of:
the blood flow from each heart beat pushing against the arterial wall
The smooth muscle wrapped around the arterioles determines:
the radius of the arterioles depending on various factors
What determines resting radius of arterioles?
the inherent tone set by the smooth muscle surrounding them
Intrinsic factors for arterioles include:
local metabolic changes, histamine release, application of heat or cold, and myogenic response to strech
What local metabolic changes in arterioles cause vasodilation?
Lowered 02, increased CO2, lowered pH, and increased Adenosine (increased metabolism)
What local metabolic changes in arterioles cause vasoconstriction?
Increased 02, decreased CO2, increased pH, and decreased Adenosine (decreased metabolism)
What is the local vasodilator in arterioles?
Nitric oxide (works on smooth muscle)
What is the local vasoconstrictor in arterioles?
Endothelin (works on smooth muscle)
Mean arterial pressure is analagous to:
pressure gradient
Total peripheral resistance is most influenced by:
arteriolar resistance (greater diameter = lower resistance = lower TPR)
Mean arterial pressure is calculated using the equation:
MAP = CO x TPR