Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/43

Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Name the two layers of the pericardium?
1)Visceral ( aka: epicardium )
2)Parietal
Name the 2 layers of the pericardium
Visceral
Periental
aka epicardium
Give 4 functions of the Pericardium
1)Holds heart in place
2)Prevents friction
3)Prevents bugling of ventricle
4)Prevent spread of infection from other organs
Name the 4 borders of the heart and structures that comprise each of the borders
1)Right- RA
2)Inferior- RV & some of the LV
3)Left- LV & portion of LA
4)Superior- both atriums
Name the 3 layers of the heart
1)Endocardium
2)Myocardium
3)Epicardium
1)interior surface of chambers & heart valve
2)heart muscle layer
3)outermost layer
Name the 2 AV valves
Tricuspid valve
Mitral/Bicspid valve
Name the 2 semilunar valves
Pulmonary valve
Aortic valve
Name the 10 components of the impulse conduction system
1)Sinoatrial (SA) Node
2a)Bachman's Bundle
b)Thoral's Bundle
c)Wenckeback's Bundle
3)Atrioventricular (AV) Node
4)Bundle of HIS
5)Right Bundle Branch (RBB)
6)Left Bundle Branch (LBB)
7)Anterior Superior Fascicle Branch
8)Posterior Inferior Fascicle Branch
9)Purkinje Fibers
10) Moderator Band
Name the 2 main coronary arteries
Right coronary artery
Left coronary artery
Give 2 main branches of the Left Coronary Artery (LCA)
1)Left Circumflex
2)Left Anterior Descending (LAD)
Give 3 main posterior branches of the Right Coronary Artery
1)Posterior Descending Artery (PDA)
2)AV Nodal Artery
3)SA Nodal Artery
What artery supplies the anterior 2/3 of the interventricular septum
Left Anterior Descending (LAD)
What artery supplies the anterior 1/3 of the interventricular septum
Posterior Descending Artery (PDA)
What is the normal resting membrane potential of cardiac myocyte ?
-90mv
What is the threshold membrane potential of cardiac myocyte ?
-70mv
Name the 3 phases of the pacemaker cell action potential
Phase 3 "Repolarization"
Phase 0 "Depolarization
Phase 4 "Spontaneous Diastolic Depolarization"
Describe the first phase of the pacemaker cell action potential
-automaticity (intiated depolarization on their own)
-slow release of Na+ ions thru Na+ channel
Phase 4 "Spontaneous Diastolic Depolarization"
Describe the second phase of the pacemaker cell action potential
-once cell reaches -40mv, threshold is reached, slow Ca++ channel open
-Na+ channels are closed
Phase 0 "Upstroke" (depolarization)
Describe the thrid phase of the pacemaker cell action potential
-Ca++ channels are closed
-Na+ channels are closed
-K+ channels open & K+ ions move into cell
Phase 3 "Repolarization"
Name the 5 phases involved in the cardiac myocyte action potential
Phase 4 "Membrane Resting Potential" (MRP)
Phase 0 "Depolarization State"
Phase 1 "Early Repolarization"
Phase 2 "Plateau Phase"
Phase 3 "Rapid Repolarization"
Which ion channel is responsible for the phase "rapid depolarization" of cardiac cell action potential?
fast Na+ channel
Name the 2 major extracellular Cations
Na+ (Sodium)
Ca++ (Calcium)
What is the major intracellular Cation
K+ (Potasium)
What ion is responsible for phase 1 of cardiac cell action potential?
K+ eflux
What ion is responsible for phase 3 of cardiac cell action potential?
K+ eflux
What ion is responsible for phase 2 of cardiac cell action potential?
K+ eflux
Ca++ influx
What is the resting membrane potential of a pacemaker cell action potential?
-60mv
What is the threshold membrane potential of a pacemaker cell action potential?
-40mv
What ion is responsible for Phase 4 "Spontaneous Diastolic Depolarization" of a pacemaker cell action potential?
Na+ through slow Na+ release channel
What ion is responsible for Phase 0 "Upstroke" (depolarization) of a pacemaker cell action potential?
Ca+
What ion is responsible for Phase 3 "Repolarization" of a pacemaker cell action potential?
K+
Define Effective refractory period
No matter how strong the stimulus is, another action potential cannot be elicited
Define Relative refractory period
If the stimulus is stronger than normal stimulus, another action potential will be elicited
Define the Supranormal period
A less than normal stimulus may elicit another action potential
What are the 3 main tributaries of the coronary sinus
Great Cardiac Vein
Middle Cardiac Vein
Small Cardiac Vein
What is the contractile unit of the cardiac cell?
Sarcomere
Name 2 contractile proteins responsible for myocardial contraction
Actin
Myosin
Name 2 regulatory proteins involved in myocardial contraction
Troponin (TnC, TnT, TnI)
Tropomyocin
Name the 3 sub-uints of Troponin
TnC- Calcium
TnI- ATP Inhibitor
TnT- binding site for Troponin
Describe the first step in the excitation-contraction coupling
During Phase 2, Ca++ enters the cell through T tubules.
Presence of Ca++ initiates the release of more Ca++ into the Sarcoplasm by the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum & Terminal Cisternae
Calcium induced- calcium release
Describe the second step in the excitation-contraction coupling
Ca++ binds to TnC of Troponin on the Actin filament causing a change in confirmation of the tropomyosin molecule, uncovering the myosin binding site. TnI is inhibited, allowing the activation of ATPase in the myosin band
Describe the thrid step in the excitation-contraction coupling
Global heads of myosin binds to binding site of Actin filament
Describe the fourth step in the excitation-contraction coupling
Activated ATPase splits into ADP & iP, releasing energy. Myosin head contracts & bends resulting in the pulling of Actin filament closer to each other. Result is the shortening of sarcomere