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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in _____. It is a product of _____ X stroke volume and averages ____L/minute.
1 minute
heart rate
5.25
Heart rate is typically about _____ to 80 beats/min in young adults but higher in children and the elderly. A persistent high resting heart rate is _____ and a persistent low resting rate is ______
70
tachycardia
bradycardia
Heart rate is raised or lowered by positive or negative _______
agents
chronotropic
Blood flow mL/min and perfusion flow g/ of tissue vary with the ______ needs of a tissue.
metabolic
Flow or F is directly proportional to the pressure difference between ___ points and _____ proportional to _____
2
inversely
resistance
Blood pressure is usually measured with a sphygmomanometer. Arterial pressures are expressed as ____ over diastolic pressure.
systemic
Pulse pressure is systolic ____ diastolic pressue. Mean arterial ____ is the average in a vessel over the course of the cardiac cycle, estimated as diastolic pressure +1/3 of ____ pressure.
minus
pressure
pulse
Chronic abnormally high BP is ____ and low BP is _____.
hypertension
hypotension
BP is the pressure the blood exerts against any ___area of the blood vessel walls and it generally measured in the ____
unit
arteries
Systolic pressure is the pressure exerted at the peak of ventricular ______
ejection
Diastolic pressure is the pressure exerted at the peak of ventricular ____
relaxation
The expansion and ____ of arteries during the cardiac cycle reduces the pulse ____ and eases the strain on smaller arteries, but arterial blood flow is nevertheless pulsatile. In capillaries and viens, flow is steady and without ______
contraction
pressure
pulsation
Peripheral resistance ts resistance to ____ flow. Resistance is directly proportional to blood _____ and vessel length and inversely proportional to ____ radius to the 4th power. Changes in vessel radius or vasomotion thus have the greatest influence on flow from moment to moment. .
blood
viscosity
radius
Blood flow is fastest in the aorta, slowest in the _____, and speeds up somewhat in the veins.
capillaries
Blood pressure is controlled by local, neural, and_____control of vasomotion.
hormonal
Autoregulation is the ability of a tissue to regulate its own ____ supply. Over the short term, local _____ is stimulated by vasoactive chemicals or histamine, nitric oxide, and others. Over the long term, autoregulation can be achieved by angiogenesis, the growth of _____vessels.
blood
vasomotion
new
Neural control of blood vessels is based on the ______ center of the medulla oblongata. This center integrates baroreflexes, chemoreflexes, and ______ ischemic reflex, and issues signals to the blood vessels by way of _______ nerve fibers.
vasometer
medullary
sympathetic
Blood pressure is regulated by the hormone angiotension II, _______, atrial nutriuetic peptide, antidiuretic hormone, epinephrine, and NE.
aldosterone
Vasomotion often shifts blood flow from organs with less need of ______at a given time, to organs with greater need for example away from the intestines and to the skeletal muscles during exercise.
perfusion
Fetal hemoglogin has an higher affinity for ____ than adult hemoglobin.
O2
The fetus has ___ umbilical arteries and ___ umbilical vein that carries oxygen and nutrients to umbilical cord.
2
1
A fetus has a shunt called the ductus _____that carries blood to the inferior vena cava.
venosus
BP= CO X PR where PR is =
peripheral resistance