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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
couplet
Two premature ventricular contractions occurring sequentially.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
A pathologic process caused by autherosclerosis that leads to progressive narrowing and eventual obstruction of the coronary arteries.
coronary sinus
A large vessel in the posterior part ofthe coronarhy sulcus into which the coronary veins empty.
defibrillation
The use of an unsynchronized direct current (DC) electric shock to terminate ventricular fibrillation.
delta wave
The slurring of the upstroke of the first part off the QRS complex that occurs in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
depolarization
The process of discharging resting cardiac muscle fibers by an electric impulse that causes them to contract.
digitalis preparations
The drugs used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and certain atrial arrhythmias.
dissection
In references to blood vessels, an aneurysm, or bulge, formed by the separation of the layers of an arterial wall.
dromotropic effect
The effect on the velocity of conduction.
electrical conduction system
In the heart, the specialized cardiac tissue that initiates and conducts electric impulses. The system includes the SA node, internodal atrial conduction pathways, atrioventricular junction, atrioventricular node, bundle of His, and the Purkinje network.
endocardium
The thin membrane lining the inside of the heart.
epicardium
The thin membrane lining the outside of the heart.
fibrinolytic therapy
The therapy that uses medications that act to dissolve blood clots.
first-degree heart block
A partial disruption of the conduction of the depolarizing impulse from the atria to the ventricles, causing polongation of the P-R interval.
hyperkalemia
An exessive amount of potassium in the blood.
hypertension
High blood pressure, usually a diastolic pressure greater than 90 MM Hg.
hypokalemia
An abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood.
infarction
Death (necrosis) of a localized area of tissue caused by the cutting off its blood supply.
internodal pathways
The three pathways of the electrical conduction system found in the atria that transmit the impulse from the SA node to the AV node.
interventricular septum
A thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles.
ischemia
Tissue anoxia from diminished blood flow to tissue, usually caused by narrowing or occlusion of the artery.
isoelectric
When referring to a wave, the wave is neither positive nor negative.
isoelectric line
The baseline of the ECG.
junctional rhythm
An arrhythmia arising from ectopic foci in the area of the atrioventricular junction; often shows an absence of the P-wave, a short P-R interval, or a P wave appearing after the QRS complex.
lead
Any one of the conductors, composed of two or more electrodes, in the ECG that shows the electrical conduction in the heart.
left atrium
The upper left chamber of the heart; receives blood from the pulmonary veins.
left ventricle
The thick-walled, muscular, lower left chamber of the heart; receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it out through the aorta into the systemic arteries.
limb leads
The ECG leads attached to the limbs and that form the hexaxial system, dividing the heart along a coronal plane into the anterior and posterior segments.
lumen
The inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure.
mitral valve
The valve located between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart.
monomorophic
Having one common shape of QRS complex.
multifocal
Arising from or pertaining to many foci or locations.
myocardium
The cardiac muscle.
necroysis
The death of a tissue, usually caused by a cessation of its blood supply.
norepinephrine
A neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its alpha stimulator properties.
normal sinus rhythm
The normal rhythm of the heart, wherein the exictation iimpulse arises in the SA node, travels through the internodal pathways to the atrioventricular junction, down the bundle of His, through the bundle branches, and into the Purkinje network without interference.
orthopnea
Severe dyspnea experienced when lying down and relieved by sitting up.
orthastatic hypotension
A fall in blood pressure when changing to an erect position.
P wave
The first wave of the ECG complex, representing depoplarization of the atria.
palpitations
A sensation felt under the left breast of the heart "skipping a beat", usually caused by a premature ventricular contraction.
papillary muscles
Protrusions of the myocardium into the ventricular cavities to which the chordae tendineae are attached.
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)
Severe shortness of breath occurring at night after several hours of recumbency, during which fluid pools in the lungs; the person is forced to sit up and breathe. PND is caused by left heart failure or decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
pericardium
The double- layered sac containing the heart and origins of the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary artery.
phlebitis
Inflammation of the wall of a vein, sometimes caused by an IV line, manifested by tenderness, redness and slight edema along part of the length of the vein.
phlebotomy
The withdrawal of blood from a vein.
plaque
In cardiology, the white to yellow lesion found in atherosclerosis that is made up of lipids, cell debris, and smooth muscles cells;in older people, may also include calcium.
plasmin
A naturally occurring clot-dissolving enzyme, usually present in the body in its inactive form, plasminogen.
point of maximal impulse (PMI)
The palpable beat of the apex of hte heart against the chest wall during ventricular contraction; normally palpated in the fifth left intercostal space in the midclavicular line.
precordial leads
Another term used to describe the chest leads in an ECG.
preload
The pressure under which the ventricle fills.
pulmonary veins
The vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
pulmonic valve
The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulsus paradoxus
A weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inhalation, characteristic of cardiac tamponade and severe asthma.
Purkinje fibers
A system of fibers in the ventricles that conducts the exictation impulse from the bundle branches to the myocardium.
P-R interval
The period between the beginning of the P wave (atrial depolarization) and the onset of the QRS complex and the onset of the next QRS complex.
recanalization
The opening up of new channels through a blocked artery.
receptors
Specialized areas in tissues that initiate certain actions after specific stimulation.
refactory period
A short period immediately after depolarization in which the myocytes are not yet repolarized and are unable to fire or conduct an impulse.
reperfusion
The resumption of blood flow through an artery.
retrosternal
Situated or occurring behind the sternum.
right atrium
The upper right chamber of the heart; receives blood from the venae cavae and supplies blood to the right ventricle.
right ventricle
The lower right chamber of the heart; receives blood from the right atrium and pumps blood out through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonary artery.
ST segment
The interval between the end of the QRS complex and the beginning of the T wave; often elevated or depressed with respect to the isoelectric line when there is significant myocardial ischemia.
semilunar valves
The two valves, the aortic and pulmonic, that divide the heart from the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
sinoatrial (SA) node
The dominant pacemaker of the heart, located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium.
sinus arrhythmia
A slight irregularity of the heart rate caused by changes in parasympathetic tone during breathing.
sinus bradycardia
A sinus rhythm with heart rate less than 60 beats/min.
sinus tachycardia
A sinus rhythm with a heart rate greater than 100 beats/min.
stable angina
Angina pectoris characterized by periodic pain with a predictable pattern.
stroke volume (SV)
The volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.
systemic circulation
The flow of blood from the left ventricle through the aorta, to all of its branches and capillaries in the tissues, and back to the right atrium through the venules, veins, and venae cavae;also called the greater circulation.
T waves
The upright, flat, or inverted wave following the QRS complex of the ECG, representing ventricular repolarization.
tricuspid valve
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
trigeminy
A premature complex in every third heartbeat.
tunica adventitia
the outer layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall composed of elastic and fibrous connective tissue.
tunica intima
The smooth, thin, inner lining of a blood vessel.
tunica media
The middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand.
U wave
A small flat wave sometimes seen after the T wave and before the next P wave.
unstable angina
Angina pectoris characterized by a changing, unpredictable pattern of pain, which may signal an impending acute myocardial infarction.
vagus nerve
The 10th cranial nerve, the chief mediator of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Valsalva maneuver
Forced exhalation against a closed glottis, the effect of which is to stimulate the vagus nerve and, thereby, slow the heart rate.
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
A syndrome characterized by short P-R intervals, delta waves, nonspecific ST-T wave changes, and paroxysmal episodes of tachycardia caused by the presence of an accessory pathway.