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85 Cards in this Set

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Chalcolithic
a culture which is still essentially Neolithic in character, but in which the metal copper is just beginning to be used, without replacing stone as the principal material for implements.
Hittite (old)
1650-1460, a feudal aristocracy in what is modern day Turkey who led victories in north Syria and invaded Iraq. Their success in war was the horse and chariot
Ahmose
Drove out the Kyksos re-conquered northern Nubia, and put an end to the authority of the local nobles.
Neolithic
the stage of development which is remarkably the invention almost
universal adoption of 4 important features: agriculture, domesticated animals, pottery and polished stone tools.
Amenemhet III
Pharaoh when Joseph died
Thutmose III
conquered Palestine (throught the victory at Migiddo) and Syria. Possibly the Pharaoh of the Exodus.
Sesostris II
the pharaoh with dreams.
John Garstang
(digging 1930-1936) city (Jericho) came to an end about 1400 B.C. Dug 1 big hole
Ay
The aged adviser and priest of Tutankhamen who ruled for 4 years. King Tut was succeeded by an old man that had been his adviser and priest.
Hyksos
rulers of foreign countries, a mixed horde consisting of Semetics and Hurrians from Palistine, Syria, and farther north, who established two dynasties of rulers.
Canaanites
Represented various ethnic groups, who lived in various city-states, each under a king.
Haremhad
A general who became Pharaoh and sought to remove all traces of Aton.
Akkad
Semetic empire that ruled over Akkad, Summer, Elam, Assyria and N. Syria.
Date of Exodus
(Support for 1446) Biblical evidence 1 Kings 6:1; Judges 11:26
Sesostis I
oblisk is a monument (like the Washington moument)
Ramses I
Resumed the imperialistic policies of early kings and passed on to his successor the beginnings of a new empire.
Ramses II
Had problems with the sea people, but his primary enemy was the Hittites. (Reigned for 67 yrs.)
Ziggurat
Not a tomb but a worship center.
Mentuhotep II, III
the Pharaohs during the period when Abraham visited Egypt.
Seti I
Campaigned to reclaim Syria
Thutmose II
Half brother and husband of Hatshepsut. (Adds to temple)
Rameses Explanation
Rameses may have been a common name during the time of the Hyksos kings of Egypt. Rameses means “begotten of Ra”. Or it was the name of the city
Amenemhet I
Curbed the power of the provincial borons and began the wars of conquest.
Kassite
1600-1207 during period of Exodus, major Mesopotamian power with probably originated from a group of Elamite horsemen out of the Zargros mountains.
Mentuhotep II, III
the Pharaohs during the period when Abraham visited Egypt.
Dynasties XV-XVI
Second intermediate period.
Sesostris III
the Pharaoh when Jacob came to Egypt.
Old Kingdom
Dynasties III-X
Sesostris II
the pharaoh with dreams.
Hammurabi 1700
Conquered all of Mesopotomia and established an excellent administration and code of laws (6th King)
Snefu
(Dynasty IV 2650-2500)built pyramid of Medum and developed navigation.
Thutmos I
possibly made the decree that all the male infants of the Hebrews would be slain. Fought in Palestine and Syria, reaching the Euphrates, making vassel states.
Egypt (New Kingdom)
dynasty XVIII
Dynasty XX Rameses III
Defeated another wave of people of the Sea and once again defeated Lybans.
Dynasty XVII
resistance began against the Hysos.
Tutankhamen
Son-in-law of Amenhotep IV, (Akhenaton) who attempted to restore the worship of Amun.
Ras Shamra Tablets
(15th Century B.C.) Ugratic Religious epic poetry which gives insight into Canaanite religion.
Middle Kingdom
Dynasties XI-XVII
Old Assyrian
1950-1500 B.C., an empire consisting of a war like people who used the Zargos Mountains as their stronghold.
Early bronze
a period when copper or bronze came into use for tools and weapons.
Amenhotep III
Diplomat who led his nation to a time of great prosperity and cultural refinement.
Kathleen Kenyon-
(2nd dig: 1952-1958) Jericho was destroyed at the end of the Middle Bronze Age about 1550 BC and was unoccupied throughout the late Bronze Age.
Dynasties VII-X
2500-2100- the dissolution of the power of the Pharaohs allowed the state names to become autonomous.
Mesopotamia
“between the rivers” Euphrates and Tigris
Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus- erected
the 3 colossal pyramids at Gizeh. Chephren may have built the Sphinx.
Mesopotamia
(Sumerian culture began 3500b.c.) civilization that was known for the sexagesimal system, develping the war chariot, codifying cival law in writing, and ziggurats.
Thutmose IV
succeeded father, though not eldest son- cleared sand and restored Great Sphinx of Giza.
Amenhotep IV
developed a sun god (Aton) monotheism and built a new capital called Akehaton (later Tel-el Amarna) lost influence along eastern mediteranian. Marked a beginning of a decline in Egypt.
Mesopotomia
the time of the renaissance of Sumerian civilization. Ur was the place of Abraham’s birth and remembered for the great ziggurat to Nannar, the moon god (around 2100 B.C.)
Nebuchadnezzar I
Defeated Elamites, but lived under thr threat of Assyria. (Middle Babylonian) Mesopotamia
Egyptian dynasties
A) The old kingdom 2900-2100
B) The middle kingdom 2100-1570
C) The Empire (New kingdom) 1570-1090
Manetho
an Egyptian Priest wrote a history of his country in Greek, of which fragments have been preserved by Josephus, Julias, Africanus and Eusebius. He grouped the kings of Egypt from Menses to Artaxerxesa III into 3rd Dynasty.
Pre-old kingdom Menes
united the two kingdoms of upper and Lower Egypt with the capital; at thinis. (Deshret- red crown lower Egypt / Hedjed- white crown upper Egypt)
Tel-El-Amarna Letters
international correspondence written in Assyrian on Cuneiform tablets, during the times of Amenhotop III & IV from Palestinian kings requesting aid.
Boghaz koy tablets
(16th century B.C.) tablets from the palace of the Hittite Empire. Identified with horses.
Egypt (New kingdom)
the Exodus covers the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. The latter part of the 18th Dynasty opens the period of the Judges.
61) Dynasty XIX- (1300 B.C.) period of Judges, begins a period of conquering and building.
A.D. 70
Fall of Jerusalem (Titus)
00 or 4 B.C.
Birth of Christ
63 B.C.
Roman capture of Judah (Pompey)
168 B.C.
Abomination of Desolation (Antiochus IV Epiphanes)
331 B.C.
Greece conquers Judah (Alexander)
500 B.C.
Esther
536 B.C.
Babylon falls to Persia (Cyrus II)
586 B.C.
Babylon conquers Southern Kingdom (Nebuchadnezzar II)
722 B.C.
Assyria conquers Northern Kingdom (Shalmanezer V)
931 B.C.
Kingdom divided (Jeroboam / Rehoboam)
1050 B.C.
Monarchy begins (Saul)
1000 B.C.
David
1446 B.C.
Exodus (Moses)
2000 B.C.
Abraham
Hatshepsut
tempting to identify with the daughter of Pharaoh in Ex. 2:5 (she assumes authority)
Hittite (New)
Major power confronting Egypt who lost decisive battle with Rameses II at Kedesh
Mari tablets
records of life and times in the Old Babylon period from Mari on the Euphrates River, containing names similar to biblical names.
Stele of Merneptah
Hieroglyphic inscription describing military accomplishments, which is the only Egyptian inscription to mention Israel.
Cenotaph
An empty tomb or monument when someone else is buried elsewhere.
Amenhotep II
was on a military campaign to Syria during the last year of Thutmose III with whom he was a co-regent.
Mycenaean pottery
Two tone pottery
Amenemhet II
Joseph enslaved in Egypt
Stele
Stone tablet with information on it.
Merneptah
Quelled a rebellion in Palestine and repelled attack by Lybyans and people of the sea.
Zoser
The founder of dynasty III (2700-2650) built step pyramid of Sakkara
Urnammu
founder & rebuilder of Ur III
Old Babylonian
(1900-1600) the 1st dynasty of Babylon. The new comers that came up out of Arabia and into Babylon are probably to be identified with the Amorite of the O.T.
Lavant
coastal plain goes around eastern to Mediterranean.
Habiru
Some assume them to be Hebrews