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113 Cards in this Set

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ced
to yield, to go

ex- proceed
fer
to bring or carry

ex- infer
hetero
other, different


heterophile
cess
to yield , to go

accession
fac
fic
fec
fect
to make or do
ex-infect, factory, ficiton, perfection
bio
life


biosphere, biology
curr
to run

ex- cursory, incursion
chrom
color


chromosome, chromatography
cip
to take

ex- anticipate
mori
to die

ex- immortal, moribund
credit
to believe

ex- incredible, discredit, credible
scrib
to write

inscribe
dox
doct
belief

orthodox
curs
to run

ex- cursory, incursion
ag
to do

ex- agent
dic, dict
to say

ex dictate, indictment, predition
ten
tent
to hold

tenure, tenacious
tang
tact
to touch

contact, tangent
cis
to cut, kill

ex- incisive
veni
vent
to come


convene, prevent
act
to do

ex-act, inactive
cap
to take

ex- capture
cycl
wheel, circle

bicycle, encyclical
homo
same


homogenized
leg
lect
to choose, read

ex- select, eligible
spec
spect
to look at


inspect, spectacular
secut
to follow

sequel, consecutive
port
to carry

import, portable, transport
bibli
book


bible, bibliophile
auto
self


automobile, autobiography
dem
people


demographic
erg
work, power


energy, ergometric
lect
to choose, read

ex- select
script
to write


circumscript
cred
to believe

ex- discredit, credible
mort
to die

ex- mortality, immortal
cas
to fall

ex- casual
graph
gram
writing

ex- telegraph, telegram, eiigram, grammar
don
to give
gen
type, race


genetics
fac
fic
fec
fect
to make or do
ex-infect, factory, ficiton, perfection
posit
to place

ex- expose, positive
portat
to carry


import, portable, transport
metr
meter
measure


thermometer
capt
to take

ex- capture
cid
to cut, kill


ex-homicide
pon
to place

ex- proponent
mitt
to send

ex- admittance
crac
crat
power, rule


democrafcy, autocracy, bureaucracy
cad
to fall

ex- cadence
duc, duct
to lead
leg
lect
to choose, read

ex- select, eligible
chron
time


anachronism
lat
to bring or carry

ex- translate
cep
to take

ex- perception
da
to give

ex- date, mandate
cosm
world


cosmic
anthrop
man, mankind


anthropology
sequi
to follow


sequel
Who discovered how the structure of DNA accounts for its role in inheritance?
Watson and Crick, 1953
What is an important function of some carotenoids?
Photoprotection: absorb and dissipate excessive light that would otherwise damage chlorophyll
What do normal cells use that cancer cells do not?
Growth factors
When cells divide, they must be attached. What is this known as ____?
Anchorage Dependence
What 2 signals determine the ability of an animal cell to divide?
Density-dependent inhibition
Anchorage dependence
Which phase of Meiosis occupies the most time?
Prophase I
To what type of receptors do PDGF molecules bind?
Tyrosine-kinase receptors
How much energy (kcal) is stored in 1 mole of ATP?
7.3 kcal
What type of external factors influence cell division?
Nutrients
Presence of growth factors
What is a cluster of 4 chromatids called?
Tetrad
pillory
criticize:

a device formerly used for publicly punishing offenders consisting of a wooden frame with holes in which the head and hands can be locked
Aristotle (380-320 BC)
This person developed the continuum of organisms; from lowest to highest forms.
What color in the visible light spectrum has the highest radiation?
Violet (380 nm)

Shorter the wavelength the higher the energy
What kingdom(s) and organelles do ATP Synthase reside?
Eukaryotes: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Prokaryotes: PM
Microevolution
Any change in allele frequency of a population resulting from mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, natural selection, or some combination of these.
During what stage is CO2 first released?
The Kreb Cycle (No Name Step)
List the people who aided in the discovery of the genetic code in DNA.
Mendel
Darwin
Morgan
Griffith
Chargoff
Avery/MacLeod
Hershey/Chase
Watson/Crick & Franklin
Meselson/Stahl
There's 9 of them
Where does the assembly of the spindle microtubules start?
In the centrosomes.
How many pairs of chromosomes do the resulting cells have after Meiosis?
1 pair
bacchanalian
debauchery
What is formed during cytokinesis in animals and plants?
Animals - Cleavage Furrow
Plants - Cell Plate
What provides the reducing power in the Calvin Cycle?
NADPH
p 181
When O2 is present in Glycolysis, _____ is converted to ATP by _________?
NADH; Electron Transport Chain
What is the macromolecule involved in cellular division?
Proteins Microtubules
What is the difference between NAD+ and NADP+? Which pathway does it belong to and what type of reaction is it?
NADP+:
-phosphates that offer free energy.
-Photosynthesis
-Anabolic
NAD+:
-Cellular Respiration
-Catabolic
During what phase(s) does the cell grow and produce proteins and cytoplasmic organelles?
During ALL 3 phases if interphase
What type of ATP synthesis occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group to ADP?
Substrate-level phosphorylation
CRITICIZE/CRITICISM
Aspersion
Belittle
Berate
Calumny
Castigate
Decry
Defamation
Deride/Derisive
Diatribe
Disparage
Excoriate
Gainsay
Harangue
Impugn
Inveigh
Lambaste
Obloquy
Objurgate
Opprobrium
Pillory
Rebuke
Remonstrate
Reprehend
Reprove
Revile
Vituperate
How many chromosomes does a human cell have?
46 chromosomes
(or 2 sets of 23 chromosomes)
What generates almost 90% of ATP in respiration?
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What process distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter cells?
Mitosis
What reactant do autotrophs use to produce organic molecules?
CO2
What 3 characteristics do homologous chromosomes have in common?
1. Length
2. Centromere position
3. Staining pattern
How are chromosomes in a Karotype arranged?
In pairs starting with the longest.
What is the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation?
Genetics
Describe the downhill route that most electrons travel during cellular respiration?
Food » NADH » Electron Transport Chain » O2
What 2 activities does a cell regulate in response to a signal?
1. Enzyme activity
2. Genes
What type of reaction describes the electron transfer from NADH to O2?
Exergonic
Endogonic or Exogonic
Founder Effect
A few individuals from a large population establish, or found, a new population that have alleles only from the original population.
One type of genetic drift.
Where do the hydrogen atoms stripped from glucose go first?
NAD+
Inbreeding
Non-random mating among closely related relatives.
How much ATP and NADPH are required to make one G2P molecule?
9 ATP & 6 NADPH are consumed
Which of the reactants in Cellular Respiration are oxidized and reduced?
Glucose oxidized
Oxygen reduced
What enzyme adds CO2 to RuBP?
Rubisco (RuBP Carboxylase)
p 190
What does CO2 attach to in the Calvin cycle?
Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP)=5 C sugar
Directional Selection
Favors an extreme.
Homozygous Dominant or Recessive

EG Peppered Moth
Where does chemiosmosis occur in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria?
(List the 3 areas of transport)
Mitochondria: H+ protons pumped from the Matrix to the Intermembrane Space

Chloroplast: H+ protons pumped from the stroma to the Thylakoid Space.
p 188
What is the name of the reaction center in chlorophyll's photosystem II?
P680 (absorbs 680 nm wavelength of light)
What is the electron acceptor in a redox reaction?
Oxidizing Agent
What is the reaction center of chlorophyll in photosystem I known as?
P700 (absorbs wavelengths of 700 nm)
What stages of Respiration can Fats enter?
Glycolysis

(& The No Name Step)
What stages of Respiration can Proteins enter?
Glycolysis, Kreb

(And NO NAME)
What is the purpose of cyclic electron flow?
It produces the extra ATP required for the Calvin cycle that consumes more ATP than NADPH.
p 187
What is the main difference between noncyclic electron flow and cyclic electron flow?
(Functional unit and products)
Noncyclic:
Uses Photosystem II & I
Products are O2, NADPH, ATP

Cyclic:
Only uses Photosystem I
Products are ATP only.
p 187