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94 Cards in this Set

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Name of the glycoprotein coating around the oocyte.
zona pellucida
46. What is the purpose of the bicarbonate ions secreted by the pancreas?
Pancreatic juice also secretes biocarbonate ions to counter the acidic PH of chyme.
43c. What do the enzymes Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase digest?
43b. What does the P. lipase enzyme digest?
Breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides.
43a. What does the Pancreatic amylase enzyme digest?
Carbohydrate digesting enzyme breaks down molecules of starch or glycogen into double sugars.
What is the electrical response of ON and OFF large cells?
ON: Increased firing rate blips followed after a while by negative going blip.

OFF: Negative blip followed after a while by a couple of positive blips.
What is an EEG measuring?
Because of the time scale - hundreds of ms - they do not measure action potentials per se. An EEG is an attenuated measure of the extracellular current flow from the summated activity of many neurons.
Contrast electrical vs. chemical synapses. Five things.
distance between cells: 3.5 nm (elec) vs. 20-40 nm (chem)

Cytoplasmic continuity (elec) vs. none.

Gap-junction channels (connexons) vs. pre-synaptic vesicles, active region, post-synatpic receptors.

Ion current (elec) vs chemical transmitter

Usually bi-directional (elec) vs. unidirectional.
37. What is the enterogastric reflex?
When triggered it inhibits peristalsis and thus slows down the rate of chyme moving from the stomach into the small intestine.
What are 3 morphological differences between males and feamles
SDN-POA: 5-6x bigger in male

AVPV: 5x bigger in the female after puberty.

Spinal Nucleus of the Bulocavernosus is bigger in male.
What five hormones are released by the hypothalamus to the median emience => release of hormones by the pituitary?
Gondadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Thyrotropin RH (GHRH)


One important antimicrobial factors, found in secretions, body fluids and cells:
Starts with an L
What is the weather prediction task?

For what type of memory is it used?

What are two diseases studied with this and what were the outcomes?

What patients don't show a problem?
Pick 1,2,or 3 cards of 4 and combine to "predict" the weather.


People with amnesia showed no impairment => non-declarative memory. People with Parkinson (substania nigria problem) or Huntington's (basal ganglia damage) were impaired in learning using this test.
29. What is gastrin and what is its function?
A hormone produced by enteroendocrine G cells in the pyloric glands. It is one of three components needed to stimulate gastric secretion.
Name Secondary lympohoid tissues:
adenoids, tonsils, spleen, appendix, Peyer patches, lymph nodes, skin associated with lymphoid tissues, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues
26. What is the function of intrinsic factor?
Released from parietal cells. Is needed to insure vitamin B-12 absorption in the small bowel.
What is meant by masculination? Give six behavioral examples.
Development of male behavioral characteristics. For male rats:

1) mounting vs. Lordosis

2) rough and tumble play vs. hang out

3) improved spatial ability

4) Activity (stays on side of open space and doesn't move much) vs. runs round in center

5) Aggressive behavior - newcomer

6) Urinary posture.
What are the two male hormones made by the testes?
testosterone and inhibiton
Where are GnRH cells located?

Where do 50-75% of them project?
medium septum, Rostral POA, DBB h and v limbs, OVLT

Median eminence
______ cells kill, ____ cells coordinate response, and ____ cells supress the immune reaction.
Cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
Supressor T cells
Acute inflammation of the lungs (alveoli). Results in fluid between the respiratory membrane and the pulmonary capilary thus making respiration more difficult
What are the fundamental points in the Galarreta and Hestrin paper?
1) Inhibitory neurons are critical in the coordination of cortical activity.
2) Electrical synapses between inhibitory cells => synch of firing
What are the fundamental points of the Stuart and Sakmann paper?
1) APs backpropagate
2) The backpropagated wave uses active propagation as Na+ channels in the neurites help to sustain the wave.
3) The "APs" in the neurites caused by the backpropagating AP are not all-or-nothing.
What are three examples which indicate that not all sexual differentiation is hormonally mediated?
1) Embryo development is greater in males even before differentiation of the gonad.

2) Kanagroo - sexually dimorphic structures appear before differentiation of gonad

3) Zebra finches - Sexually differentiated neural circuit for song.
Macrophages and dendritic cells also play essential roles in specific immune responses as _____ ______ cells.
What are 3 tasks where females are typically better than males?
1) Perceptual speed

2) Verbal fluency

3) Recall of items
What 2 skills for which males are better than females?
1) rotation tasks

2) spatial tasks
What causes Testicularly Feminized Males and what is the result?
1) A defect in the androgen receptor

2) XY are fully feminzed both anatomically (external) and behaviorally.
What are two two characteristics of Congentital Adrenal Hyperplasia?
1) A 21-hyroxlase deficiency prevents the formation of adrenal cortical steroids (glucocortoroid and mineralcocorticoid), and increases the formation of adrenal androgens.

2) Females are androgenized
What are 4 tests of the hypothesis that sexual differentiation of the human brain is hormone mediated?
1) Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia

2) Testicularly Feminized Males- lack of functional androgen receptor

3) Children of DES exposed mothers

4) 5-alpha Reductase deficient populations
Name four types of cells that take in virus or bacteria and chews it up and stick a piece on their surface (after which T and B cells come in and get fired up):
B cells,
dendritic cells,
reticular cells
What is Respiratory gas transport
O2, CO2 must be transported to and from lungs and body tissue cells via blood stream.
Draw out the firing rate diagram for full lighting of the center, full lighting of the annulus, full lighting of both center and annulus. Do this for OFF and ON cells.
1) light in center-ON cell: increased firing rate

2) lignt in center-OFF cell: decreased firing rate

3) light on annulus-ON cell: decreased firing rate
4) light on annulus-OFF cell: increased firing rate
5) both: firing continues with no changes.
N_________phagocytize and digest engulfed materials.
neutrophils (PMN's)
What are six other inputs to the hypothalamus. For two of them, projections are given - name them.
Retinal (retinohypothalamic fibers) to SCN

temperature sensitive neurons in POA (preoptic area) and AHA (anterior hypothalamic area)


barroreceptor containing neurons

steroid hormone receptor containing neurons

leptin receptor containing neurons
_______participate in inflammatory reactions and to parasites.
What do you find in the Lamina propria of the intestine?
1) Connective tissue
2) Vascular elements
3) diffuse and nodular LYMPHOID TISSUE
4) Muscularis mucosa (inner: circ :: outer: long)
What are the 6 required characteristics of a hypothalamic releasing or inhibiting hormone?
1. Activity must be extractable from the whole hypothalamus or median eminence.

2. Concentration in portal blood must be greater than in the systemic circulation.

3. Dyanmics of secretion in portal blood must correlate with the dynamics of adenohypophsial hormone secretion.

4. Extracted material must be active in vivo and in vitro

5. Inhibitors of neurohormone must affect physiological endpoints

6. Target cells should have specific receptors for neurohormones.
Name the main cell body and terminal locations for AVP (arginine vasopressin)
cell bodies: SON, PVN

terminals: neurohypophysis, median eminence
Dopamengeric amacrine cells have their dendritic arbor in the OFF layer of the IPL. Yet they are activated by light. How can this be?
A theory is that melanopsin GCs are activated directly by light. It releases GABA which results in the dopamine A cells releasing dopamine. CHECK BECAUSE DENDRITES OF THE GCS ARE NEXT TO THE DENDRITES OF THE DOPA...
What is the hormone of the intermediate lobe?
melanotropes: Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
What are the five category types of the anterior pituitary (adenhypophysis) adn pituitary hormones?
1. gonadotropes: Luterinizing Hormone/Follicle Stimulating Hormone (LH/FSH)

2. lactotropes: PRoLactin (PRL)

3. thyrotopes: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

4. corticotropes: AdrenoCorticoTrophic Hormone (ACTH)

5. somatotropes: Growth Hormone (GH)
81. What vitamins are synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine?
Vitamins B-12, K, thiamin, and riboflavin
What does the pleura space (pleural cavity)do?
Contains a lubricating fluid to prevent friction when the membranes rub together during respiration
Name the 2 layers and one area of the pleura
1)parietal (outer layer)
2)visceral (inner layer)
3)pleural space (pleural cavity)-containing a lubricating fluid to prevent friction when the membranes rub together during respiration
Stages of oogenesis and names of "cells" involved
oogonia - stem cell
Mitosis - Primary oocyte
Meiosis I - Secondary oocyte plus first polar body
Meiosis II - ootid plus second polar body (if secondary oocyte fertilized)
Describe the pathway of the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus efferents.
from meidal hypothalamic zones to PAG (periaqueductal gray ), reticular formation and dorsal vagal nucleus (preganglionic sympathetic and sacral parasympathetic)
What is pulmonary ventilation
Air in airsacs of lungs continually changing and being refreshed: breathing
Give the sequence of events when light shines on an ON cone during the day. PR -> GC. Voltages and chem involved.
Increase light => Hyperpolarization of receptor => decrease glutamate released by PR => opening of MGluR6 receptors on BP cell => increased glutamate release by BP cell => depolarization of GC => increased firing rate.
what is glycogenolysis?
The hydrolysis of glycogen, releasing glucose.
What are the 9 things that the hypothalamus integrates?
light, olfactory,

arousal, cognitive, fear/emotion,

thermal, osmotic, pressure

What are the two major stages in a paraoxysmal depolarization shift?
First, we see a sudden depolarization of the membrane potential that can last from 50 to 150 ms. At the end of this pulse will be an after hyperpolarization component.
What common cortical circuit results in an electrical response that is similar to a PDS (paraoxysmal depolarization shift)?
It is quite common to see a pyramidal cell with feedback through an inhibitory interneuron. Hence we will see an EPSP (depolarization) followed in time by an IPSP (after hyperpolarization).
What are three primary characteristics of dense amnesia?
Severe anterograde observed in the subject. Some retrograde. Same thing as global. HM had it.

Damage diffusely distributed across the brain?
What are the three broad things that the hypothalamus regulates?
homeostatsis of autonomic function - visceromotor and endocrine systems.

homeostatsis of motivated behaviors

reproductive hormone secretion and behaviors
What is the result of hypoxia regarding red blood cell production?
Usually cause kidneys to release erthropoitin, polycythemia in order to stimulate the production of red blood cells.
Located in the Medulla oblongota which receives signals - automatically stimulate muscles of inspiration for depth and rate.
Respiratory Center
68. What is the placae circularis?
Many tubular folds of mucosa in the small intestine.
What types of primary connections synapse into the dendritic arbor of the GC? List if they have excitatory or inhibitory synapses.
Excitatory synapses from BP cells, glycine/inhibitory from AII to Cone Off GC, gap junction AII to Cone On GC.
Only ____ is secreted in the large intestine.
Passages for Airflow
Nasal cavity, Pharynx, larynx, bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli.
In ______ Respiration, there is loading carbon dioxide and unloading oxygen - Opposite of process in lungs.
Internal Respiration
What are the names of the two neuroendocrine connections to the pituitary gland?

What are 3 features of circadian rhythms regarding condition for entrainment, freerun and T__ C__
entrainment tau = T

freerun in constant conditions

temperature compensation
List the pathway of the mammillotegmental efferent
Arises from medial mammillary nucleus. To dorsal and ventral tegmental nuclei in PAG (periaqueductal gray), reticular formation, relay to autonomic nuclei in brainstem and spinal cord
What are some of the antiepileptic druges (AEDs) and how do they work?
Barbituarates and benzodiazepines - augment GABA-mediated inhibition.

Phenytoin - blocks high-frequency firing of action potentials.
What are the general layers of the Digestive tract?
1) Mucosa
2) Submucosa
3) Muscle Layer
4) Serosa or adventitia
What are the RPE? How are they integrated? What is their function?
Outer segment is interdigitated amoung processes of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. RPE are cuboidal cells bound together by tight junctions that provide nutrients to photoreceptors, absorbe stray photons not caught by PRs.
List the pathway of the hypothalamo-meduallary efferent
orginal from PVN, DMV (dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus ) and LH. Terminate in solitary nucleus, dorsal vagal motor n., n. ambiguus and nuceli of ventrolateral medualla (parasympthetic)
List the pathway for the hypothalamo-spinal efferent.
Primarily from paraventricular N. of the hypothalamus (some fibers from the dorsomeidal and lateral hypothalamus). Terminate on neurons in the intermediolateral cell column (visceral efferents)

Visceral efferents of the PVN => intermediolateral cell column
In going from the hypothalamus to the spine, think of the homeostatis control of the autonomic system.
What are the mechanisms of synchrony? What is happening which each of these three?
Chemical synapses, electrical interactions, and ionic changes.

Chemical synapses: many pyramidal cells are interconnected.

Inhibitory interneurons are tied together by gap junctions.

Unwanted ion changes can occur in the extracellular space which can spread out and affect nearby cells.
List the four main descending efferents from the hypothalamus.


Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

One of them is to the brainstem core.

Another area is from the paraventricular zone to the central grey region of the midbrain
What are the six characteristics of a hypothalamic releasing or inhibiting hormone?
Activity must be extractable from the hypothalamus or median eminence.

Concentrations in portal blood must be greater than in the systemic circulation.

Dyanmics of secretion in portal blood must correlate with dynamics of secretion by pituitary

extracted material must be active in vivo and in vitro

inhibitors of neurohormones must affect physiological endpoints.

target cells must have specific receptors for neurohormones.
Disease that narrows airways, destroys aveoli.
What is contained in the outer segment of the photoreceptor?
1000 stacked discs. Photo pigment rhodopsin in membrane. Channels which pass Na+ and Ca++.
What are the epidemiology/causes of seizures?
Seizures can occur in normal brain - hypoxia, hypoglycemia, poisons, etc.
What are the retinohypothalamic fibers? Give the primary path and the area reached by collaterals.
Direct projection from retina to SCN or as collaterals of the retinogeniculate fibers
What will the EEG look like for a convulsive generalized seizure? Include the frequency and wave characteristics.
10-20 Hz high-ampltude activity during the tonic phase; groups of polyspikes separated by quiet intervals during clonic phase.
What are the two consequences of the PR synaptic deactivation in outter segment and in the terminal?
1) reduction of inward current - hyperpolarization leads to closing of voltage dependent Ca channels in terminal and lowers Ca concentration.

2) Lower Ca decreases synaptic vesicles binding to terminal membrane and thus less transmitter (glut) release.
What is likely to be observed during a convulsive generalized seizure? How long does each phase last?
Patients fall to the ground in rigid extension for 15-20 seconds (tonic phase), frequently loose bladder and bowel control. This blends into clonic phase: rhythmic limb contractions for 20-30 sec.
Looking intracellularly, what will be seen in a parvocellular cell when GnRH is about to be released?
A burst of APs with increasing frequency of the firing.
What monitors the CO2 levels in blood and increases the RR when they go up?

What is measured in the peripheral chemoreceptors.

What pH will result with high CO2.
chemoreceptors monitor CO2 levels in blood and increase breathing rate when they go up. pH and O2 are monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors as well.
Low pH is a result of high CO2 (in acidic form).
collecting duct

Role of ADH in collecting duct
distal tubule empties into CD, which carries it into medulla. IF ADH in medulla, it makes duct permeable to water, so water diffuses into medulla.
ducts empty into renal calyx and finally renal pelvis.
What is contained in the outer plexiform layer?
Cone and rod terminals. Dendrites of BP cells.
The fornix arises from neurons in these two areas that are associated with memory:
subiculum and hippocampus
For oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, the following will cause oxygen to unload
Low pH (high H+)
High CO2
High temperature
High BPG
What is one major hormone released by the parvocellular cells? G___

What is one of the hormones that this causes to be released? L___
GnRH (gonotrophic releasing hormone).

Leuteinizing hormone (LH).
proximal convoluted tubule
where reabsorption takes place, glucose, proteins and other solutes leave proximal convoluted tubule by 2ndary active transport.
drugs, toxins etc secreted into filtrate by prox tubule.
55. What are the vascular channels of the liver called?
Hepatic sinusoids
What are the alternate names for complex partial seizures?
Psychomotor, temporal lobe or limbic seizures.
What are the characteristics of a complex partial seizures regarding:
1) conciousness
2) pre-seizure or start
3) post seizure
Consciousness lost or distrubed. Often begins with an aura and automatisms, and followed by amnesia and a period of confusion.
48. What is the function of cholesystokinin and where is it secreted from?
released from intestinal wall as fats and proteins enter the small intestine, decreases motility of the stomach.
What are the five cell types of the anterior pituitary and what hormones do they secrete?
GnRH: Gondaotrophs: Luteinizing H/Follicle-Stimulating H

CRH: Corticotrophs: AdrenoCorticotrophic H

GHRH: Sommatotrophs: Growth H

DA: Mammotrophs (Lactotrophs): ProLactin

TRH: Thyrotrophs: Thyroid Stimulating H.
What types of hormones do enteroendocrine cells secrete?
1) Gastrin
2) Secretin
3) Cholecystokinin
4) Somatostatin