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30 Cards in this Set

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What are carbohydrates?
Molecules that have the genereal molecular formula of CnH2nOn which may also be written as (CH20)n. They usually have the ending -ose.
Disaccharides
Formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined together with the elimination of a water molecule, a dehydration, condensation, or synthesis reaction.
Polysaccharides
Formed from the combining of many monosaccharides, after dehydration. Polysaccharides are a major storage form of carbs, such as the starch in plants and glycogen in animals.
Benedict's test
Used to detect the presence of all monosaccharides and those disaccharides that contain a potentially free aldehyde or ketone group and are commonly called reducing sugars.
Reducing Sugars
Disaccharides that can donate electrons.
What happens in a Benedict's Test?
The blue cupric ions (Cu++) of the Benedict's Solution are reduced to red cuprous ions (Cu+) or a red copper oxide precipitate (Cu2O).
Does a Benedict's Test require heat?
Yes.
What does an Iodine Test test for?
It is used to detect the presence of the polysaccharide starch.
What happens in an Iodine Test?
The iodine solution (IKI), which is typically an amber-brown color, complexes with the polysaccharide, it becomes a blue-black color.
What color is a positive Iodine test?
Blue-black.
What color is a positive Benedict's test?
Red.
How is the polysaccharide starch broken down?
Hydrolysis -- it's done by your digestive system, using the enzyme (amylase) in your saliva and pancreatic secretions. 3M HCl and heat work, also.
What are lipids?
Complex organic molecules that tend to be insoluble in water because they are nonpolar.
What are the 4 groups of lipids?
Neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, and other lipoid substances.
What are phospholipids?
Similar to neutral lipids except that they contain a phosphate group in place of one of the fatty acids chains.
Lipoid Substances
Include the fat soluble vitamins, A, E, and K, the eicosanoids (most of which are derived from arachidonic acid), such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, and the lipoproteins.
Sudan IV dye
A simple way to demonstrate the presence of fats.
What color is the Sudan IV dye in the first place?
It is a dark red brown powder that is insoluble in water.
What color is the Sudan IV dye when in a fat?
Bright red.
Proteins
A group of organic molecules that are both structurally and functionally important in the human body.
What are the building blocks of protein?
Amino acids.
How many naturally occurring amino acids are there?
About 20.
What are amino acids linked by?
Peptide bonds.
Ninhydrin test
Used to detect the presence of amino acids.
What color will amino acids turn when ninhydrin is present?
Purple.
Which amino acid turns yellow?
Praline.
What is the Biuret test?
Used to detect the presence of polypeptides and proteins.
What color is the Biuret solution before mixing?
Blue.
What color is the biuret test in the presence of polypeptides?
Pink or purple. Solutions containing proteins will turn violet with the biuret, solutions of smaller peptides will turn pink, and solutions of amino acids alone will not show a color change and will remina blue. An exception is cysterine, which turns yellow.
The Ninhydrin Test will not be positive until protein is broken into _____ ____
amino acids