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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Bureaucratic knowledge
Knowing how to file reports and knowing the procedures and policies for all manner of managerial activities.
Chain of command
The organizational design for the flow of communication and decision making.
Classical organizational theory
Theory that divides organizations into functions with a pyramid-like chain of command, a span of control, and a distinction between line and staff workers.
Coercive power
Power that stems from a leader's ability to mete out negative consequences or remove positive consequences for not performing desired behaviors. This results from others' perceptions.
Contemporary organizational theory
Theory that looks at the organization as a system composed of people, formal structures, small groups, roles, and physical environment.
Delegation
The process by which authority is distributed downward in an organization.
Empowerment
An extension of delegation in which the power and responsibility for relevant decision making is extended to the employee without supervisory direction or oversight.
Expert power
Informational power resulting from a leader's special knowledge or skills associated with the tasks being performed by subordinates.
Formal leaders
Leaders who rely on organizational authority or status to influence people.
Informal leaders
Leaders who rely on their own abilities to influence others; they lack the official support of the formal structure.
Leadership
The exercise of influence of one person over another in such a way that the follower behaves as the leader directs.
Legitimate power
Power that comes from holding a formal management position in an organization.
Neoclassical organizational theory
Theory stating that an effective organization follows the workflow and productivity of the classical organization; however, it also meets the employees' needs as they appear in the informal networks and social components of the workplace.
Participatory management
A process where subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their supervisors.
Personal power
Power available to any leader through the use of his or her personal resources, including on-the-job expertise and charisma.
Political knowledge
Knowing the specific interest of others and how to balance competing interests
Position power
Power that is available to someone holding a position by virtue of its legitimacy as well as the rewards and punishments that can be meted out.
Power
The motivational factor, or force, that provides the leader with the ability to influence others to change their behaviors as the leader desires.
Professional knowledge
Refers to how people interact with others who have the same skills and capabilities.
Referent power
Power achieved when workers admire a supervisor or manager because of the way she or he deals with them.
Reward power
Power that emanates from the leader's authority to bestow formal rewards or favors on others.
Self-management
Managing one's own behavior so that less external management control is needed.
Span of control
Principle that recognizes the limited ability and time of an individual manager. It asserts that there should be a limit on the number of persons or activities assigned to one manager.
Technical knowledge
Refers to skills required to complete work tasks.
Theory X
A theory that assumes people avoid work by their very nature. A manager who accepts this believes the employee is lazy and requires constant monitoring to ensure that performance remains at expected standards.
Theory Y
A theory that purports that (1) work is natural; (2) when people are committed to the organization's goals, self-control will be exercised; (3) the ability to solve problems is widespread and underutilized; (4) organizational commitment depends on rewards and recognition; and (5) people normally seek responsibility.
Theory Z
A theory that espouses these dimensions: (1) long-term employment; (2) collective decision making; (3) individual responsibility; (4) slow evaluation and promotion; (5) implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized procedures; (6) career paths that are moderately specialized; and (7) holistic concern, especially including the family.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
A management theory whose underlying principle is that all activities and operations of any organization should be focused upon discovering and meeting the needs of the customers. Set forth by W. Edwards Deming.
Zone of indifference
When subordinates accept and follow directives almost automatically.