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298 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The steps in the scientific method, in order, are
identify and define the problem, gather information, develop alternative solutions, evaluate alternatives, and choose and alternative
Which types of information cannot be quantified?
Qualitative data
Which is NOT an analytical tool for decision making?
Personal values
The generation of new ideas refers to
Whis can be described as the translation of a new idea into a new product, service, or even a new organization?
A manager takes the view that no matter how good an idea, there must be evidence for it being successful.
Monitoring innovation
The most difficult tak that alol managers confront is
decision making
Smith has to make a decision about redesigning tghe out-of-date plant. The IDEAL model fro decision making is
classical theory of decision making
Cho has identified a problem in his ingineering of the new plant design. The objectives for solving the problem using classical theory of decision making are determined. The next step is
det3ermining the risks
It is discovered that the problem is more comples,. the problem is unclear, and the objectives are also not clear. Smith uses the behavioral theroy of decision making after identifying problems. he discusses the findings with Cho and explains that
this is a complex decision and only incomplete information is now available
Many of the employees in the plant have worked for Smith and Cho since the plant was first built and started production. Cho emphasizes that personal feelings must be set aside for
organizational success
Salazar has a broken machine. Salazar should
determine the cause of the machine malfunctions before proceeding
Salazar needs a long-term solution. More time is required to use
logical thinking patterns
The issues of logical reasoning and systematic investigation imply that Salazar is using which approach to solve the problem?
Scientific method
Salazar needs a solution for a critical, inanticipated problem. Since the inception of the company, Salazar has never faced a problem like this. Salazar and the management team are most likely to use what kind of tools in their rational decision making?
Analytical tools
Salazar has determined that the best approach to decision making will begin with identifying and defining the problem, gathering information, then developing alternatives, evaluating alternatives, and monitoring the decision. This is called
the scientific method
Which characteristics of innovative people will make Baker's companyu a success at working with customers with unique or highly unconventional problems?
Originality in thought and ideas generated
Baker was not a manager in the previous job, yet the leadership of the new company may require that he serve that role. Baker may have problem with which one of the steps in a creative process?
Monitgoring of Innovation
Baker's innovative nature may prove more successful in his new company than in other employment situations because
there is no pattern of decision making and productgion to follow
Based on the description of Baker, which is the greatest strength being brought to the new company?
The successful generation of new ideas
which suggests what a client would expect to benefit from Baker's ability to be innovative?
New ways of doing things
The first step in planning is to formulate a/an
mission statement
After 9/11, organizations in New York City had to perform which kind of planning?
Contingency planning
Which strategic planning concerns represents a current trend?
Technological innovation
Which one of the following states exactly what must be done and allows for no variation or discretion?
Evaluation of a plan rests on careful measurement of
To achieve the organization's mission
activities to achieve the mission must be established
Controlling employee interaction, clarifying policy and procedure, and recognizing the limitation of plicies are key components of a manager's effort to
communicate mission and values to employees
MBO(management by objectives) involves
superior-subordinate collaboration on setting goals
Which is related to public policy statements?
Legal marketing practices
Which types of plans would have been the first examined by the banking industry immediately aftger September 11, 2001?
Some financial institutions lost personnel and business locations in the attack. Their immmediate plans for dealing with an attack worked well, but the changing nature of government oversight means that they may have to consider
reviewing their strategic planning
After banking organizations declared new policies to track and detect terrorist organization monies, they needed to develop
action plans to guide the work to be performed
The terrorist attack resulted in actions that suggest a strong link between which combination of strategic trends?
Globalization and security
Banking regulations are very slow to change and tend to govern exact methods fro collectiong, securing, and transferring frnds. Based on this description, these regulations would be considered ?
What should do first to go forward with planning?
Adjust its strategic plan
As makes needed changes to survive in the new reality, it needs to
perform a complete analysis of internal and external environments
After has performed both an internal and an external audit, the next step is to
set objectives to implement the plan has finished planning and has decided to communicate its new mission and valuse to the organization at large. Which will provide the next logical step?
Formulate policy to reflect new values discovered during its analysis of the external environment that the public in general has a negative perception of its corporate image. The company shoudl consider
stating its corporate values
Wu and McGinty's first step toward expansion should be to
begin a careful evaluation of their existing strategic plan
Wu and McGinty will need to convince their employees that expansion will benefit them as well. Assuming they have a good business plan, which method would ensure employee support of the new idea?
Use management by objectives to establish participation
A business plan for this expansion should start with
a strategic plan including a mission statement
Wu and McGinty have a special method of ensuring employee involvement and self-direction. They want to be able to achieve the same level of employee confidence in the new countries they enter. Which trend must they take into account to respond to their concern?
Globalization of the marketplace
As Wu and McGinty develop their strategic plan to enter the market in a new countgry, which one of the following would be a new component of the plan in comparison to their previous single-country plan?
Their corporate responsibility in the new country
After planning, the next management function is
Which standard would be the easiest to determine and evaluate?
A technological control process that is NOT a choice for management is
CAP (controll association process)
The most wideley used inventory management system is
EOQ (economic order quantity)
Warehousing facilities are
an extremely important materials management task
Make or buy decision are
fitted to the strategic plan
One of the important concerns with office design today is
ergonomically designed work spaces
Plant location considerations
are not uniformly i portant for all knids of businesses
The methods for organizing facilities are
functional, production, or perational
An effective quality control system requires that
predetermined standards are set
In America, the quality control era began
in the 1980's
An international quality standard is
ISO 9000
Which function of the organization is NOT a concern of HRM?
The major purpose of HRM in any organization is to attract, train,develop, and retain the most qualified employees in all positions. Thnis function is called
Which HRM area encompasses all aspects of collective bargaining?
The HRM department would be able to perform training better if it
uses internal staff for training
If Smith empowers Sanchez, training can be accomplished by
using other staff and managers to assist
Smith has demonstrated a/an
understanding of the inmportance of staffing
Sanchez can provide an excellent training program for the new management trainees if
the network inside and outside the HRM department is used
The issue of the reduced training budget is resloved when the HRM department realizes that
proper training can actually save money
The publishing company's problem is that the
training and development policies need to be modified
Chou could conduct management training more successfully if
HRM is incorporated into staffing
If Chou were to utilize the total quality management approach advocated by Deming, which woul address the trainee problem?
Developing pride of workmanship
Chou shoud change the
hiring and training policy
The management trainees can ensure their job success by
following job performance criteria
After managing the information released to the public, Belford's should next
control inventory, warehousing, and supplier selection
It would be beneficial for Belford's to review tis
buy decisions
The kind of control that is needed immediately is
Which area of control does Belford's have to consider at this time?
materials procurement
Behaviors that are rewarded tend to be repeated. This phenomenon is called the law of
In order to learn new skills or knowledge, the learner must have all the precursor skills and knowledge. This is known as
learner readiness
The transfer of learning is more likely to occur when people
set realistic learning goals
Which is a goal of orientation for the employer?
Save time
The relationship in which one person trains, guides, and supports the development of another employee is called
The method of training in which the trainees engage in role-play and practice is called
behavior modeling
Which is a question that needs to be addressed in the evaluation of a training program?
Who has benefited most from the program?
Kirkpatrick's method of evaluation training programs distinguishes intgernal criteria from external criterial. Which represents the set of external criteria he identified?
Behavior and results
Thorough design of aneffective evaluation program involves
multiple evaluative measures
trainers need to know how a skill or new behavior is acquired. Jaspers should emphasize the
psychomotor domain
To encourage new learners to repeat a desired action or behavior, Jaspers instructs the trainers to
offer rewards
Before starting an individual in any training program, even the trainginfor trainers, Jaspers must determine
learner readiness
Which represents the most effective learning circumstance for complicated information technology tasks that Jaspers should recommend to the training staff?
Distributed practice
If Jaspers expects to be able to dependa on the trainers and not be required to be involved in the development of every new training circumstance, then Jaspers must achieve in the trainers the effect called
transfer of learning
The method of management promotion at Plains Insurance is properly considered employee development because it
targetgs skills that will be important in the employee's future
Davis's role as mentor will help Montoya because
mentors help establish crucial relationships
The administrative duties and tasks will be best learned in progams taht focus on
technical skills
The long-term management development program at Planins Insurance resembles
job rotation
Davis sends Montoya to an activity that involves a business simulation designed to determine areas of trainging Montoya will need in the future. This activity is called a/an
assessment center
meier, Hong,and LeMoyne have been contracted to improve the training processes at Trans-Stgate Airlines. WShnich reason accounts for why they would observe actual operations? Observation of operations will
reveal actual training needs
For dealing with customers, flight attendants, sales representatives, and customer service sgtaff especially need training in
interpersonal skills
The airline maintenance crews have a distinct hierarchy that includes younger employees who must work under the supervision of a senior maintenance chief. This kind of job training is called
A key method of training evaluation that Meier, Hong, and LeMoyne should utilize compares the behavior of trainees on the job after training witgh their performance
prior to the training
Meier, Hong, and LeMoyne propose a training program that uses regular, on-going evaluation to be certain that the program is working. The firm suggests pretesting all employees, postgtesting after training, asking for employee feedback, and making other assessments. This evaluation will be effective because it utilizes
multiple evaluative measures
Number of events, time money, color, size, and shape refer to
objective data
Haveryt enters a room and grabs attention almost immediately and always takes initiative. If these are seen as leadership traits, then the fact that Haverty is recognized as a leader means that the traits have
construct validity
an assembly plant decides to test a new assembly procedure by having one line use the new procedure while another line used the old procedure. This method of researching the new procedure is called the
experimental method
Which will have the greatest chance of giving fabricated data during research?
A local ice cream maker cannnot afford sophisticated research studies to determine popular flavors. The ice cream maker would be bestg helped by
studies conducted by trade associations
A ceramic cup maker who specializes in putting customer logos on cups and other items wants to find the best technique with the fewest steps to preparing and firing the cups. The cup makier should conduct a/an
time-and-motion study
An auto manufacturer has data showing how much time is required for each step in the assembly process. Which statistical method would show the typical length of time for each assembly?
Descriptive statistics
The relationship between customer satisfaction and how often the customer comes back to purchase another product would be shown in a
correlation coefficient
A major manufacturer of computers cannotr survey all of the company's hundreds of thousands of customers to determine the level of customer satisfaction. The statistical technique used to take a small sample and determin the most likely view held by most customers is called
inferentail statistics
In a project designed to helop a client convert all reporting to an electronic system, Miko orders types of reports into catgegories by placing them in a/an
nominal scale
Transition planning includes transitions caused by mergers. Recently, Miko has had to collect data for clients' human resource departments relating to employee reactions to mergers. Which method will produce the in-depth response data?
In establishing a goal "improve quality" in a strategic plan, the client wants to measure the quality as a reduction in customer complaints. Miko notices that through the yuear, complaint rates fluctuate. To be sure the measure will be consistent, Miko must determin whether on not the measure is
A client want s to upgrade technology in the main office, but the exact technolohy needs of the staff are unclear. Miko will be able to identify those needs using a/an
The reason Planning and Transition, Incorporated relies on systematic research is that
informaiton and analysis guide effective decisions
Simmons determines that a preliminary examination of inrformation about current businesses in the cabgle industry will be the best place to begin. Simmons would find the most reliable sources by directing the team to research
at libraries and archives
Since the project cazlls for an analysis of the entire market, which would be a useful external sources about cable customers?
The cable trade association
During one pahse of the project, Simmons and the team administer questionnaires to a broad selection of people, including customers and potential subcontractors, to determine what kinds of obstacles the client may need to overcome. This research is based on
primary data sources
Simmons must determine the consumers' acceptance of the client as a new entry into the cable industry. This phase of the research is called
market analysis
IN order to make appropriate project assignments within the team and match skills to work, Simmons should conduct a
task analysis
Which measure shoudl Gassett use to determine the consistency of each production line over a given period?
Standard deviation
Part of productivitgy is the numnert of defects that must be subtracted from the initail unit porduced. Which measure would be recommended to show the tendency toward rejects?
It is impossible to time every assembly action continously, but Gassett decides that the average time for each assembly step should be determined. So, times for each step are taken throughout the day, and the data manager estimates the average times using
Gassett thinks that running the assembly line slightly slower will decrease the reject rates and thus increase the ovgerall productivity. This relationship is called
a correlation
In several lines in the assembly area, Gassett discovers tiny differences in production from one day to another. Which would determine whether these differences were important or merely a result of chance variation?
Level of significance
The process of achieving organizational results through people and other resources
A leaders's specail knowledge or skills associated with the tasks being performed by subordinates defines
expert power
A leader must know the interest of others and be able to balance the competing interests. This type of leadership knowledge is known as
Collective decision making, slow evaluation and promotion, and informal control linked to fromalized procedures are hallmarks of Theory
The restricted time and ability of na individual manager means that hte number of people reporting to a manger should be limited. This is called
span of control
When a supervisor exercises effective control and direction of thers, responsibilities must be assigned and power given to others, responsibilities must be assigned and power given to other to carry out the assignments. The act of giving others this authority is called
delegation of authority
The sense of indivdual success and individual self-direction that accompanies empowerment results from
Total quality management is closely associated with employee empowerment because employees
solve quality problems
Which is a serious disadvantage of employee empowerment?
It is a shortcut to corporate success
The employees at Halls like McNally and trust that McNally knows the company and its work. McNally's apparent fitness as leader indicates
acceptanced of authority
Through a long presence at Halls, McNally has knowledge that allows careful balance beteen all the competing interest within the company. This knowledge of the interests of others is called
political knowledge
Rotation through jobs and plants at Halls and the systematic increase in responsibility with each new job means that McNally has built personal power based on
developing expertise and confidence
In the years leading to being appointed chief executive officer, McNally formed many friendships and collaborated with many other Hall employees. This contributed to the development of leadership ability through
acquiring affiliation and support
McNally depends on subordinates working together to solove problems and engage in planning. Whic would be identified as the organizationa style used by McNally?
Participatory management
In selecting a team leader, Krystal know that the team leaders shoud be from the division to which the team will submit its completed project. Team leaders should report to their regular supervisors. This principle is know as
the unity of command
Krystal selects team members according to the notion that the team needs only one specialist for each type of task that the team to coordinate tasks by
division of major activities into horizonal groupings
The charge to any team must be clear and describe the outcome that is expected. To accomplish this, Krystal must
delegate both authority and responsibility
For most teams, Krystal establishes criteria for production output, allocates resources, sets timetables, and creates communication links. These are all aspects of
establishing feedback and administrative controls
Which best describes the organization in which Krystal works?
Participatory management
The greeter's role at New Flanders Bank includes taking responsibility for customer needs trying to satisfy them. This responsibility is called
employee empowerment
Having employees take responsibility for their work and for the success of the bank should result in
improved job satisfaction
The approach at New Flanders Bank includes employees stepping in and assisting other empolyees as the need arises. This aspect of empowerment is based on the view that
everyone is a potential customer
Which might cause the efforts of empowerment to fail?
Poor training that results in misues of opportunities
New Flanders Bank has borrowed the greeter concept from a highly successful model. Which aspect of empowerment does this idea resemble?
Increased organizational involvemet
Which is a type of group focused on a common tangible benefit, usually money?
Informal groups
share common goals
A group of employees at different levels of the hierarchy including the person who manages them is called a
vertical team
Which lists the four major characteristics of groups?
Size, norms, roles, and status
having a special location, special uniform, or special identiy specifically contributes to a group's
During a group meeting qualities of good membership result in participation that includes
asking questions
Providing advice and increasing involvement, completing one-of-a-kind projects, providing production and service, and implementing actions are types of tasks undertaken by
work teams
To make a team become more cohesive and have less internal conflict, which types of activities would be most helpful? Activities that
examine interpersonal processes
In the context of teamwork, the individual must
be recognized for individual initiatives
Teams are susceptible to failure when the leader of the team
rules only by mandate and dictates
Dissent and diversity should be
emcouraged and fostered
In a work-oriented organization informal groups
provide useful political advantages
Noki recognizes that most teams are composed of members who are at the same level in the company. This describes a/an
horizontal team
A few of the groups are permanent, with specific leaders who do not change. These groups perfomr regular, routine, and repeating functions loike accounting and payroll. The groups would be called
command groups
Some groups and teams are formed for special projects, whereas others form as resources for support. These informal groups reflect a basic human need for
Which type of groups best describes the group Noki assembled to help define the team structure at Smith and Associates?
Task force
Another feature of the groups and teams at Smith and Associates is that the team members often form relationships that extend beyond work. These groups are called
friendship groups
Carver changed Bates's job from assistant to the director to the assistant director to reflect the work Bates was actually doing. This cahnge recognized the relative importance within a group and is called
The couriers perform a number of different tasks. If their duties and tasks are not clearly assigned, they may experience
role ambiguity
Since members of the department have been together so long and worked in close proximity, Bates would be able to expect the group to have
familylike strengths
Carver heades a group that has high respect among other divisions of the company. The use of couriers to check shipments and whether the internal "customers" are satisfied is a source of pride and uniqueness that results in
During the regular contact of work and informal interaction, the division runs smoothly. Participation is reflected because staff and couriers support each other, accept view of others, and ask questions for understanding. These behaviors are sighns of
good membership
Which describes the type of team tasks that Glade is planning to utilize as its regular organization of work?
Providing production and service
Glade plans to build the team approach beginning with the lowest level of the company. As these workers already know their job tasks, on which of the types of activities should team building focus? Activities that
build cohesion by examining interpersonal processes
A few of the line workers believe that the move to a team approach is being made because they are not trusted as individuals. This problem may become a serious impediment to
team effectiveness
Some of the teams that will be formed may have members of different status participating. In order to lead such a team effectively, the team must be directed to
treat each team member equally
Which steps will provide Glade with the means of reducing the possibility of hidden agendas taking control of a team?
Pay strict attention to the team's goals
Which is a major advantage of group problem solving?
Greater involvement leading to acceptance of decisions
Team members who gain benefits, but who contribute very little to the group's work, are known as
free riders
Which is a recommended approach to combating groupthink?
Assign a devil's advocate
In this group problem-solving technique, group members identify and analyze a problem, develop a solution, and propose the solutions to management. This technique is called
quality circles
In this group problem-solving technique, members of the group first generate a list of ideas about a problem, discuss each idea about a problem, discuss each idea in turn, and then rank the ideas. This technique is called
nominal group technique
When adecision has both positive and negative consequences and conflict arises because of them, this refers to a/an
approach-avoidance conflict
Which is a form of intrapersonal conflict in which conflicting thoughts result in feelings of anxiety?
Cognitive dissonance
The style that involves accommodating others by supporting their views and being unselfish is called
In this group technique for reducing interpersonal conflict people first learn to identify passive, aggressive, and assertive roles, then they engage in role-play to practice. This technique is called
assertiveness training
In this group technique for reducing interpersonal conflict,people meet without an agenda and discuss anxiety-provoking issues. This technique is called
sensitivity training
In this group technique for reducing interpersonal conflict, people go into a wilderness area and learn to depend on each other to meet specific physical challenges. This technique is called
adventure training
The fact that Mook dominates the group and forces a decision on the group suggests taht the group suffered from
inplementation ineffectiveness
Which is an advantage of group decision making that Mook could have expected if the approach used had been successful?
Avoiding the high cost of decision making
Managers like Mook may created barriers to allowing subordinates to have more say because
they are reluctgant to surrender traditrional problem-solving duties
HA Appliances employs a variety of professionals who have specialized in the engineering needed to develop a new refrigerator. A team composed if these specialists would be called a/an
If the group suffered from groupthink, which would be evidence?
High pressure to conform
Which group problem-solving techniques would help Crotty and Kym work through the problem that they have created?
The source of the conflict between Crotty and Kym, as it is described, is
As the conflict spreads from being one betwee Crotty and Kym to involving many of their coworkers, the conflict would be called
horizontal organizational conflict
Managers who supervise Crotty and Kym could work toward resolving the conflict between them by first
engaging in fact-finding about the problem
Which strategies would be best for Crotty, Kym, and Lifeline Health?
For In-Balance to deal with increasing conflict between new immigrants and long-standing members of the workforce, trainers from Life Harmony should use
sensitivity training
To identify root causes of the problems being encountered by In-Balance, Life Harmony wnats to undertake a process that includes both internal staff and external experts called
Delphi technique
To encourage the workforce and staff at In-Balance to feel like they have ownership of the solutions to be used to turn the company around, Life Harmony recommends
using group and team problem solving
Life Harmony discovers that few managers trust each other and most complain of sabotage of efforts by other managers. To rebuild trust among managers, Life Harmony jplans to use
adventure training
Upper-level management at In-Balance has little respect for line workers, and one executive was even heard referring to them as "babies" after a complaint about safety was made. Which approach is most suited for reversing this type of thinking among executives?
Transactional analysis
Which involves a formal meeting where a group is formed to investigate a particular event or problem within an organization?
Ad hoc committee
Martinez wants to get professionals from a number of companies and agencies together to share ideas about a new innovation. The appropriate meeting format would be a/an
Without an agenda or a gegular meeting schedule, informal meetings
allow the sharing of ideas freely
Evaluation or performance reviews are regularly conducted in
office meetings
Regular meetings that look and feel like high school pep rallies are called
inspirational meetings
Topics like merger, the dissolving of a unit, or the reorganization of a unit are discussed in what is called a/an
reorganizational meeting
Which item should be available prior to the meeting?
Meeting chairs use parliamentary procedure to control a meeting so that
one item will be discussed at a time
Jones is chairing a meeting in which tow members begin arguing angrily with each other. To regain control, Jones should
call for order
Global Industries has decided to expand the annual meeting of its management staff to include shareholders and a board meeting. Rankin will need to prepare for what is called a/an
external general meeting
The local city and county government is planning to form a merged municipal government. Neither the city nor the county has a facility large enough to accommodate open meetings with citizens from both the city and the county in attendance, so they turn to
Goliath Hotels. A meeting space is needed that includes microphones for the public to ask questions and make comments. The type of meeting being planned by the merger group is called a/an
public forum
A national teacher organization plans a meeting for which all its membership is invited. Textbooks and instructional aid vendors will also attend and set up displays. This type of meeting is called a/an
professional association conference
The idea to provide administrative, receptionist, and clerical support to locate businesses came from Rankin talking with the owner of a temporary service. Immediately after taht encountger, Rankin assembled the entire staff to talk about the idea. This meeting would be called
impromptu meeting
After each meeting wiht a client, the client completes an evaluation and discusses the results with each staff member individually. This type of meeting is called a/an
office meeting
The monthly meeting of the department and division heads at Better Body Works is most similar to a typical
departmental meeting
Since the main business of the monthly meeting is to convey reprots, hear proposals from internal and external presentersw, explain new procedures, the main purpose of the meeting would be considered
The informal meetings that Ramsey conducts with external vendors prior to their making presentations at the monthly executive meetings have the purpose of
After any meeting in which a problem occurs-whether it is with technology, someone talking too long, or any confusing incident- Ramsey gathers the staff in a inproptu and informal session in which anyone can offer analysis or solutions. The central purpose of this session would be
Which represents a common pitfall of informal meetings that may occur at the Goliath Hotel business center?
Lack of a useful record
Gaines notes that Douglas lists a couple of items on a whiteboard and then starts the meeting. Gaines suggests that Douglas would be more successful if the meeting had a/an
Which should Gaines recommend as a means of keeping participants focused on the meeting agenda?
Parliamentary procedures
To cope with Oleka, Gaines recommends
having stated times for each item and sticking to them
Which participant does Gaines recommend that Douglas ask to leave when his or her typical behavior reoccurs?
Which participant engages in a breach of order that could be solved by Douglas asking to make the point relevant?
How does the global village affects human resource management practices?
Globalization is creating a situation where human resource management must begin to search fro mobile and skilled employees capable of successfully perfomning their jobs duties in a foreign land. Employees must understand the host country's language, culture, and customs.
Describe how technology is changing HRM
Technology is having a major impact on HRM. It's giving all dmployees instant access to information and changing the skill requirements of employees. As a result of technological changes, HRM has had to address or change its practices when it deals with such activities as recruiting and selecting employees, motivating and paying individuals, training and developing employees, and legal and ethical matters.
Identify the significant changes that have occured in the composition of the work force.
The work-force composition has changed considerably over the past 35 years. Once characterized as having a dominant number of white males, the work force of the new millennium is comprised of a mixture of women, minorities, immigrants, and white males.
Explain the implications for human resource management of the changing work-force composition.
The most significant implications for human resource management regarding the changing work-force composition are language and skill deficiencies of available workers, changing management parctices to accommodate a diverse work group dealing with conflict among employees, and providing family-friendly benefits.
Describe how changing skill requirements affect human resource management.
Changing skill requirements neccessitat that human resource management provide extensive training. This training can be in the form of remedial help for those who have skill deficiencies, or specialized training dealing with technology changes.
Explain why organizational members focus on quality and continuous improvements
Organizational members focus on quality and continuous improvements for several realson; today's educated consumers demand it and quality impuovements have become strategic initiatives in the organization. HRM is instrumental in quality initiatives by prepairing employees to deal with the change and training them in new techniques.
Describe how work process engineering differs from continuous improvements and its implications for HRM
Continuous incremental improvements focus on enhancing the quality of a current work process. Work process engineering focuses on major or radical change in the organization.
Identify who makes up the contingent work force and its HRM implications.
The contingent work fornce includes those part-time, temporary, consultants, and contrac workers who provide services to organizations on an as-needed basis. The HRM implications of a contingent work force include attracting and retaing skilled contingent workers, adjusting to their special needs, and managing any conflict that may arise between core and contingent workers.
Explaain why work sites may be decentralized and what their inplications are for HRM
Organizations use decentralized work sites because telecommuting arrangements enable organizations to find qualified employees without having to relocate business facilities. Decentralized work sites also provide cost savings to the organization,m as well as fulfilling some special needs of a diversified work force. For HRM, decentralized work sties will require training for managers in managing and controlling work, and establishing pay systems to reflect this work arrangement. HRM will also have to monitor the hours home workers spend on the job as well as ensuring the health and safety of workers in the home office.
Define employee involvement and list its critical components.
Employee involvement can be best defined as giving each worker more controol over his or her job. To do this requires delegation,k participative management, work teams, goal setting, and employee traing. If handled properly, involving employees who are more loyal and committed to the organization.
Define management and identify its primary functions.
Management is the process of efficiently achieving the strategic objectives of the organization with and through people. The four main functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Three factors common to the definition of organizations are goals, limited resources, and people.
Describe the importance of human resource management.
Human resource management is responsible for the people dimension of the organization. It is responsible for getting compentent people, training them, getting them to perform at high effort levels, and providing mechanisms to ensure that these employees maintain their productive affiliation with the organization.
Explain what is menat by the term human resource management.
Human resource management is comprised of the staffing, developement, motivation, , and maintenance frnctions. Each of these functions, however, is affected by external influences.
Identify the primary environmental influences affecting human resource management.
Environmental influences are those factors that affect the funtions of HRM. They include the dynamic environment of HRM, government legislation, labor unions, and management thought.
Characterize how management practices affect human resource management.
Management practices affect HRM in a number of ways. As new ideas or practices develop in the field, they typically have HRM implications. Accordingly, once these practices are implemented, they typically require support from HRM to operate successfully.
Discuss the effect of labor unions on human resource management.
Labor unions affect HRM practices in a variety of ways. If a union exists, HRM takes on a different focus-one of labor relations as opposed to employee relations. Additionally, what occurs in the unionized sector frequently affcts the activities in organozations where unions are not present.
Outline the comnponents and the goals of the staffing, traingin, and development functions.
The components of the staffing function include stategice human resource planning, recruiting, and selection. The goal of the staffing function is to locate and secure competent empolyees. The training and development, and career development. The goal of the development function is to take competent workers, adapt them to the organization, and help them to obtain up-to-date skills, knowledge, and abilities for their job responsibilities.
List the components and goals of the motivation and maintenance functions of human resource management.
The components of the motivation frnction include motivation theories, appropriate job design, reward and incentive systems, compensation, and benefits. The goal of the motivation function is to take competent, adapted employees, with up-to-date skills, knowledge, and abilities, and provide them with an enviroment that encourages them to exert high energy levels. The components of the maintenance function incluede safty and health issues, and employee communications. The goal of the maintenance function is to help competent, adapted employees, with up-to-date skills, knowledge, maintain their commitment and loyalty to the organization.
Outline the major activities in the employement, training anddevelopment, compen sation and benefits, and employee relations departments of human resource management.
The departments of employemnt, training and development, compensation and benefits, and employee relations support the components of the staffing , training and development, motivation, and maintenance fructions, respectively.
Explain how human resource management practices differ in small businesses and in an international setting.
In large HRM operations, individuals perform functions according to their specialzation. Such may not be the case with small-business HRM practioners. Instead, they may be the only individuals in the operationn, and thus, must operate as HRM gemeralists. In an international setting, HRM functions become more complex and typically require additinal activities associated with staffing and training and development.
Identify the groups protected under the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, Title VII.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 is an important amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it granted the EEOC enforcement powers to police the provisions of the Act. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, gives individu8als protection on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. In addition to those protected under the 1964 Act, amedements to the Act, as well as subsequent lebgislation, give protection to the disabled, veterans, and individuals over the age 40. In addition, state laws may supplement this and include categories like marital status.
Discuss the importance of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972.
The Equal Opportunities Act of 1972 is an important amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as it granted the EEOC enforcement powers to police the provisions of the Act.
Describe affirmative acton plans.
Affirmative action plans are good-faith efforts by organizations to actively recruit and hre protected group members, and to show measurable results. Such plans are voluntary actions by an organization.
An adverse impact is any consequence of employement that results in a disaraate rate of selection, promotion, or termination of protected group members. Adverserv trement occurs when members of a protected group receive different treatment than other employees. A protected group member is any induvidual who is afforded protection under discrimination laws.
Identify the important components of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 provides employment protection for individuals who have qualified disabilities. The Act also requires organizations to make resonable accommodations to provide qualfied individuals accwss to the job.
Explain the coverage of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.
The Family and Medical Leave Act grants up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family or medical matters. Fetal protection laws were overturned because they created an adverse impact for women.
Discuss how a business can protect itself from discrimination charges.
A business can protect itself from discrimination charges first by having HRM practices that do not adversely affect protected groups, through supported claims of job related ness, bonafide occuational qualifications, or a valide seniority system.
Specify the HRM importance of the Griggs v. Duke Power case.
Griggs v. Duke Power was one of the most important Supreme Court rulings as it pertains to EEO. Based on this case, items used to screen applicants had to be related to the job. Additionally, post-Griggs, the burden was on the employer to prove discrimination did not occur.
Define what constitutes sexual harassment in today's organizations.
Sexual harassment is a serious problem existing in today's enterprises. Sexual harassment is defined as any verbal or physical conduct toward an individual that (1)creates anintimidating, offensive,or hostile environment; (2)unreasonably interferes with an individual's work; or (3)adversely affects an employee's employment opportunities.
Discuss what is menat by the ter glass ceiling.
The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier existing in today's organizations that is keeping minorities and women from ascending to higher levels in the workplace.
Explain the intent of the Privacy Act of 1974 and its effect on HRM.
The intent of the Privacy Act of 1974 was to require government agencies to make available to employees information contained in their personnel files. Subsequent state laws have afforded the same ability to nongovernment agencies. For HRM, they will need to ensure that policies exist and are disseminated to employees regarding access to their personnel files.
Discuss the HRM implications of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 and the Ploygraph Protection Act of 1988.
The implications of the Drug-Free Act of 1988 were to require government agencies, federal contractors, and those who receive more than $25,000 in government money to take various sgeps to ensure that thier workplace is drug free. Nongovernment agencies with less than $25,000 in government grants are exempt from this law. The Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 prohibits the use of lie-detector tests in screening all job applicants. The act, however, does permit selective use of polygraphs under specific circumstances.
Describe the provisions of the Worker Adjustment and Retraing Notification Act of 1988.
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988 requires employers with 100 or more employees contemplating closing a facility or laying off 50 or more workers to provide 60 days' advance notice of the action.
Identify the pros and cons of employee durg testing.
Drug testing is a contemporary issue facing many organizations. Because of the problems associated with substance abuse in our society, and our organizations specifically, compies test employees The cost in terms of lost productivity and the like sopport such action. On the other hand , however, comes the issue of privacy. Does the company truly have the right to know what employees do on their own time? Additinally, validity of drug tests as well as proper procedures are often cited as reasons for not testing.
Explain why honesty tests are used in hirintg.
Honesty testing in hiring has been used to capture the information now unavailable from a polygraph in wscreening applicants. Many companies use the paper-and-pencil tests to obtain information on one's potential to steal from the company, as well as to determin wheter an employee has stolen before. Validity of honesty tests has som support, and their use as an additional selection device appears reasonable.
Discusse the implications of the employement-at-will doctrine.
The employment-at-will doctrine permits employers to fire employees fro any reason, justfied or not. Although based on nineteenth-century common law, exceptions to employment-at-will have curtailed employers' use of the doctrine.
Identify the five exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine.
The five exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine are contractual relationships, satutory considerations, public policy violations, implied employment contracts, and a breach of good faith by the employer.
Define descipline and the contigenchy factors that determine the severity of discipline.
discipline is a condition in the organization when employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organization's rules and standards of acceptable behavior. Whether discipline is imposed and how severe is the action chosen should reflect such contingencies as the seriousness of the problem, duration of the problem, frequency and nature of the problem, the employee's work history, extenuating circumstances, degree of orientation, history of the organzation's discipline practices, implications for other employees, and management backing.
Describe the general guidelines for administering discipline.
Gemeral guidelines in administering discipline include making disciplinary actions corrective, making disciplinary actions progressive, and following the hot-stove rule--be immediate, provide ample waring, be consistent, and be impersonal.
Identify how employee counseling can be used to assist a poorly performing employee.
Employee counseling can be used to assist a poorly performing employee by helping the employee make behavior changes. It is an effort to correct performance declines, and to take corrective action before more serious disciplinary action is taken.
Describe the importance of emploment planning.
Employment planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that are in direct support of the company's mission and strategic goal.
Define the steps involved in the employment planning process.
The steps in the employment planning process include mission formulationg, estaablishing corporate goals and objectives, assessing curreng human resources, estimating the supplies and demand for labor, and matching demand with current supplies of labor. The tow outcomes of this process are recruitment and decruitment.
Explain what human resource information systems are used for.
A human resource information system is useful for quickly fulfilling human resource management in formation needs by tracking employee information and having that information readily available when needed.
Define what is meant by the term Job Analysis.
Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities surronding and within a job. It defines the job's duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities.
Identify the six general techniquest for obtaining job analysis information.
The six general techniques for obtaiing job information are observation method, individual interview method, group interview method, structured interview method, technical conference nethod and diary method.
Describe the steps involved in conductiong the job analysis.
The steps involved in conductiong the job analysis include:(a)understanding the purpose of conductong the job analysis; (b)understanding the role of jobs in the organozation; (c)benchmarking positions; (d) determining how you want to collect job analysis information; (e)seeking clarification, wherever necessary; (f)developing the first draft of the job description; and (g)reviewing the draft with the job supervisor.
Explain the difference between job descriptions,job specifications, and job evaluations.
Job descriptions are written staements of what the jobholder does (duties and responsibilities); job specifications identify the personal characteristics required to perform successfully on the job; and job evaluation is the process of using job analysis information in establishing a compensation system.
Describe how job analysis permeates all aspects of HRM.
Job analysis permeates all aspects of HRM in that almost everything that HRM does is directly related to the job analysis process. Recruiting selection, compensation and performance-appraising, employee training and career activities, and safety and health requirements, for example, are affected by the job analysis in terms of identifying necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities.
Define what is meant by the term RECRUITING.
Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. IT involves searching and sourcing for viable job candidates.
Identify the dual goals of recruiting.
The two goals of recruiting are to generate a large pool of applicants from which to choose while simultaneously providing enough information for individuals to self-select out of the process.
Explain what constrains human resource managers in determining recruiting sources.
Influences that constrain of the organization,k attractiveness and nature of the job, internal policies, government requirements, and the recruiting budget.
Identify the principal sources involved inrecruiting employees.
The principal sources of recruiting employees include internal search, advertisements, employee referral/recommendations, employment agencies, temporary rental services, schools, colleges, universities, professional organizations, the iNTERNET (or cyberspace recruiting),and casual or unsolicited applicants. Employee leasing, temporary employees, and independent contractors continue to be a good source of employees.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of employee referrals.
The advantages of employee referrals include access to individuals who possess specific skills, having job applicants with more complete job and organization information, and a universal application to all levels in the organization. The disadvantages of employee referrals include the potential of confusing friendship with job performance, the potential for nepotism, and a potential for minimizing the organization's desire to add diversity to the organization's employee mix.
Identify three important variables that affect response rates to job advertisements.
The three important variables are identification of the organization, labor market conditions, and the degree to which specific requirements are included in the advertisement.
Explain what distinguishes a public employment agency from a private employment agency.
The major difference between public and private employment agencies often lies in their image. Private employment agencies are believed to offer positions and applicants of a higher caliber. Private agencies may also provide a more complete line of services in that they advertise the position, screen applicants against the criteria specified by the employer, and provide a guarantee covering six months or a year as protection to the employer should the applicant not perform satisfactorily. Public employment agencies are more closely linked to unemployment benefits. Accordingly, the image of most public agencies ( while not completely accurate) is that they tend to attract and list individuals who are unskilled or have had minimum training.
Describe the benefits of cyberspace recruiting.
Internet recruiting provides a low-cost means for many businesses to gain unprecedented access to potential employees worldwide. Cyberspace recruiting is also a way to increase diversity and find people with unique talents.
Explain what is meant by the concept of employee laving and the organizational benefits of such an arrangement.
Employee leasing refers to a situation whereby individuals employed in an organization actually work for the leasing firm. One reason for leasing's popularity is cost. The acquiring organization pays a flat fee for the employees. The company is not responsible for benefits or other costs, like Social Security payments, it would incur for a full-time employee. This is because leased employees are, in fact, employees of the leasing firm.
Describe the selection process.
The selection process would include the following: initial screeing interview, completion of the application form, employment tests, comprehensive intgerview, background investigation, conditional job offer, physical or medical examination, and the permanent job offer. In the discrete slection process, each step acts as a standalone predictor--failing to pass an of thes discrete steps means disqualification from the job. In the conprehensive approach, candidates are taken through most of the steps before a final decision about them is rendered.
Identify the primaryu pupose of selection activities.
Selection devices provide managers with information that will help them predict whether an applicant willl prove to be a successful job performer. Thje rimary purpose of selection activities is to predict which job applicant will be successful if hired. During the selection process, candidates are also informed about the job and organization. proper selection can minimize the costs of replacement and training, reduce legal challenges, and result in a more productive work force.
Discuss why organizations use application forms.
The application form is effective for acquiring hard biographical data - data that can ultimately be verified.
Explain the primary purposes of performance simulation tests.
Performance simulation tests require the applicant to engage in specific behaviors that have been demonstrated to be job related. Work sampling and the assessment center, which are performance simulations, receive high marks for their perdictive capability.
Dicuss the problems associated with job interviews, and means of correcting them.
Interviews consistently achieve low maks for reliability and validity. These, however, are more the result of interviewer problems as oppposed to the interview itself. Interviewing validity can be enhanced by using a structured process.
Specify the organizational benefits derived from realistic job previews.
Realistic job previews reduce trunover by giving the applicant both favorable and unfavorable information about the job.
Explain the purpose of background investigations.
Background investigations are valuable when they verify hard data from the application; they tend, however, to offer little practical value as a predictive selection device.
List three types of validity.
There are three validation strategies. These are content, construct, and criterion related validity.
Explain ho validity is determined.
Validity is determined either by discovering tghe extent to which a test represents actual job content, or through statistical analyses that show the test used relates to an important job-related trait, or to performance on the job.
Define socialization.
Socialization is a process of adaptation. Organization-entry socialzation refers to the adaptation that takes place when an individual passes from outside the organization to the role or an inside member.
Identify the three stages of employee socialization.
The three stages of employee socialization are the prearrival, the encounter, and the metamorphosis states.
Identify the key personnel involved in orientation.
The key people in orientation are the CEO and the representatives from HRM. The CEO's role is to welcome the new employees, reaffirm their choice of joining the company, and discuss the organizations' goals and objectives while conveying information about the organization's culture. Each function in HRM has a specific role in orientation to discuss what employee services they can offer in the future.
Explain why employee training is important.
Employee training has become increasingly important as jobs have become more sophistacated and influenced by technological and corproate changes.
Define training.
Training is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in individuals that will imporove their ability to perform on the job.
Describwe how training needs evolve.
An organization's training needs will evolve from seeking answers to these questions (a)What are the organization's goals? (b)What tasks must be completed to achieve these goals? (C)What behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his or her assigned tasks? and (d)What deficiencies, if any, do incumbents have in the skills, knowledge, or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviors?
Indicate what is meant by the term organizational development and the role of the change agent.
Organizational development is the process of affecting change in the organization. This change is facilitated through the efforts fo a change agent.
Describe the methods and criteria involved in evaluating training programs.
Training programs can be evaluated by post-training performance, the pre-post-training performance, or the pre-post-training performance with control group methods. In the evaluation, focus is placed on trainee reaction, what learning took place, and how appropriate the training was to the job.
Explain issues critical to international training and development.
International issues in training and development include cross-cultural training, language training, and economic issues training.