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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
For what is the term dorsal used?
The surface of the body away from the ground and below the proximal carpus & tarsus directed towards the head.
What surface below the top of the carpus/tarsus are directed toward the tail or ground?
What is the term peripheral used for?
A part distal from its point of origin or near the surface.
What is the term for a structure closer to/farther from the longitudinal axis of the limb?
Axial & abaxial
The body is divided into dorsal and ventral portions by a ---- plane.
Dorsal (frontal) plane
What are sections?
Cuts through the plane of the body.
A ---- plane cuts an organ or limb at a right angle to its long axis. These are usually called ------.
Transverse/cross sections
What sections cut parallel to the long axis of an organ or limb?
longitudinal section
What section cuts through a transverse plane?
transverse section or cross section
The human term "anterior" corresponds with what veterinary term?
cranial on limbs, rostral on face and ventral on body.
Where are "superior" and "inferior" used in veterinary medicine?
For the eyes and some other head structures, replacing dorsal and ventral, respectively.
Name the three parts of the axial skeleton.
skull, vertebral column, thorax
Of what does the appendicular skeleton consists of?
Limb bones and bones connecting them to the axial skeleton
What connects the thoracic girdle to the axial skelton?
Muscle attachments (synsarcosis) (clavicle is rudimentary)
What bones make up the digits of carnivores?
Proximal, middle and distal phalanges, palmar and dorsal sesamoid bones
What is the common name of the tarsus?
What bones make up the pelvic girdle (pelvis)?
two hip bones, sacrum & first few caudal vertebrae
List the 5 types of bones according to shape? and give an example of each.
Short(carpal or tarsal), flat(most facial bones), irregular (vertebral, some facial bones), sesamoid (patella and sesamoids), long (most bones of the limbs)
What is the smooth layer of hyaline cartilage over the joint ends of bones?
articular cartilage
What joins the diaphysis to the epiphysis in mature bone?
What do radiologists often call the epiphyseal plate?
The structure of bone can be either ---- or ------.
compact or cancellous (spongy)
Compact bone encloses spongy bone and the ----- spaces of long bones.
What is the three dimensional lattice of bone spicules of spongy bone?
What are the two possible methods of osteogenesis?
Intramembranous and endochondral (intra-cartilaginous)
Where does intramembranous ossification take place?
flat bones of the skull.
In endochondral(intracartilaginous)ossification, where are the centers of ossification located?
diaphysis and two epiphyses
As the centers of ossification of long bones expand, they replace all the cartilaginous model, except which parts?
Epiphyseal plates and articular cartilage
Lengthening of long bones occurs in what area?
Outer growth plate (epiphyseal side of plate)
When does lengthening of long bones cease?
When cartilage cells cease to divide and physis is completely replaced by bone
What is the diaphyseal side of the physis where cartilage metamorphases (changes) into bone?
What are the two different type of growth plates? Give an example of each.
Traction (olecrannon,calcaneus); Compression (most of the rest)
What is any prominent, roughened projection from a bone?
What is a large, knuckle-like articular prominence?
A---- is a tube-like canal through a bone.
What is a smooth, flat, articular surface?
What is the pulley shaped structure of the femur?
What is a prominence above a condyle?
Structural classification groups joints according to their _______.
Uniting medium
What are the three types of uniting medium of joints?
Fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial
What functional classifications of joints indicate the degree of motion?
Immovable, slightly movable and freely movable
A suture is what type of structural joint?
fibrous (immovable)
Where are symphyseal joints found?
Generally on midline of body
What type of joint occurs between the bodies of most vertebrae?
Symphyseal-intervertebral disc
What is the configuration of the shoulder joint?
Ball and socket joint (spheroidal)
What are the two joints between the phalanges of each main digit?
Proximal interdigital (PIP) and distal interdigital (DIP) joint
With what do the proximal ends of the ribs articulate? Distal Ends?
thoracic vertebrae and sternum
What elastic connective tissue structure attaches the 1st thoracic spine to the spine of the axis (C2) in the dog.
Nuchal ligament
What elastic tissue fills the dorsal space (interarcuate space) between the arches of adjacent vertebrae?
Ligamentum flavum, interarcuate, or yellow ligament
What connects the heads of a pair of opposite ribs, crossing the dorsal part of the intervertebral discs?
Intercapital ligament
What is the relatively immovable joint between the sacrum and ilium?
sacroiliac joint
Name the ball and socket joint of the pelvic limb.
Hip joint, coxofemoral, or coxal joint
What is the compound condylar joint between the femur, patella, and tibia?
What are the fibrocartilaginous discs between the condyles of the femur and tibia?
Medial and lateral menisci