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37 Cards in this Set

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Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Corrects uracil in DNA
Base Excision repair
None
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Nuclease nicks the aberrantly dimerized strand
Nucleotide Excision Repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Results in a mutation due to missing nucleotides
non-holologous end joining
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Repairs dimerized pyrimidines
Nucleotide Excision Repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Utilizes Uracil DNA glycosylase
Base Excision Repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Corrects non-Watson & Crick base pairing
mismatch repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Uses recombination by second chromosome
homologous end joining
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Involves MutS and MutL proteins (MSH and MLH)
mismatch repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? DNA proofreading proteins detects error in DNA, then the repair mechanism uses the nicks in new strand to identify and removes strand.
mismatch repair
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Nick serve as recognition signals to use other strand.
mismatch repair
None
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? Uses DNA ligase
all… seals the nicks
Which DNA repair mechanism is associated with the following? DNA polymerase
all… adds nucleotides
1. What can UV radiation do to DNA? (sunlight)... 2. Which repair mechanism would repair this damage?
1. pyrimidine dimer... 2. Nucleotide excision repair
None
1. Which DNA repair mechanism is implicated in HNPCC?... 2. What happens as a result of the faulty repair mechanism?
1. Mismatch repair: (MSH2,3,6 and MLH1) ... 2. Microsatellite instability (MSI): trinucleotide repeat instability… slippage
None
1. Which cancer is Xeroderma Pigmentosum related to?... 2. What happens as a result of the faulty repair mechanism?
1. Nucleotide excision repair… 2. Microsatellite instability (MSI): trinucleotide repeat instability… slippage
None
What diseases are associated with Microsatellite instability (MSI): trinucleotide repeat instability… slippage
HD, XP, HNPCC
None
What does Xeroderma pigmentosum lead to?
1. Acute sensitivity to sunlight… (sunburn, photophobia)… 2. 1000-fold increased risk of skin cancer (cells are hypersensitive to killing by UV radiation.)
What type of inheritance is seen in Xeroderma Pigmentosum?
Autosomal recessive, with asymptomatic carriers
T/F Linkage of cells to ECM is receptor mediated.
TRUE
What attaches to the ECM collagen? fibronectin, actin, integrin, or an adaptor protein?
Fibronectin… the Integrin is the transmembrane protein, which attaches fibronectin-collagen on the ECM… and integrin also attaches the adaptor protein to the cytososkeleton actin
What metal ions are Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) dependent upon?
Ca and Zn
Are MMPs active enzymes?
No, they are proenzymes
How are MMPs activated?
proteolysis --> collagenases
Where do you find MMPs?
they are membrane bound when inactive… then cleaved from the membrane to become activated collagenases
What cleaves denatured collagen?
gelatinase
1. What is the role of MMPs in releasing growth factors? 2. Give two growth factor examples.
Growth factors can be stored in heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the ECM. MMPs can cleave Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, thus releasing the growth factros… 2. VEGF and TGF-ß are sometimes released by this mechanism
What are 4 ways MMP activity is regulated?
1. Gene transcription (which controls just about everything)… 2. Requires conversion of the proenzyme to the active enzyme… 3. TIMPs (MMP inhibitors)… 4. Localization of MMPs to cell surfaces.
None
What are TIMPs?
MMP inhibitors
What are the 5 features of wound healing?
Migration… ECM degradation… invasion… removal of fibrin matrix… movement of keratinocytes in the wound (MMP-1)
MEIR-K
What is involved in the movement of keratinocytes in wound healing?
MMP
What 4 actions do MMPs perform in their cancer role?
promotion, angiogenesis, invasion, growth in ectopic sites.
None
What are the 6 stages of metastasis?
1. Detachment… 2. Intravasion: penetration into vascular lumen (MMP-9)… 3. Survival within the circulation… 4. Adhesion and proliferation on the vascular endothelium… 5. Extravasion: Penetration into a new host tissue… 6. Establishment (MMPs)
DISAPprovE E
At what stages are MMPs required for metastasis? Which specific MMP is needed? (Hint: only one specific MMP is given)
a) second stage: Intravasion (penetration into the vascular lumen)… b) 6th stage: Establishment (MMPs)
What are 3 possible explanations for the failure of MMP inhibitors in the treatment of cancer in clincal trials?
1. None of the inhibitors were highly selective… 2. Doses were at maximal tolerated doses… 3. Patients had advanced metastatic cancer.
Which of the following metastasitic events is signal transduction important to: cell migration or angiogenesis?
Both
None
Which integrin binds MMP2 and leads to ECM destruction, ∂vß3 or ∂vß5?
∂vß3 = integrin ligand --> denatured collagen
Which integrin is a peptidomimetic agonist (inhibitor) ∂vß3 or ∂vß5?
both