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116 Cards in this Set

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Excisional biopsy
Removal of tumor and a margin of normal tissue.
Incisional Biopsy
Piece of tumor removed for examination to establish diagnosis.
Needle Biopsy
Insertion of a needle into a tissue to remove a core of tissue.
Punch Biopsy
Removal of a small disk-shaped sample of tissue using a sharp, hollow device
Adenocarcinoma
Tumor and cancer of gland.
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing agent.
Carcinoma
Solid tumors derived from epithelial tissue.
Glioma
Tumor that started in the brain.
Leukemia
Cancer of white blood cells.
Leukoplakia
A white patch that may develop on mucous membranes such as the cheek, gums, or tongue and may become cancerous.
Liposarcoma
Cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue.
Lymphoma
A cancer of the lymph nodes (or tissues.)
Melanoma
Cancer of pigmented skin cells.
Myosarcoma
sarcoma of muscle tissue
Neoplasm
New growth or tumor which may be benign or malignant.
Precancerous
A term used to describe a condition that may or is likely to become cancer.
Encapsulated
Tumor contained within a fibrous cover or capsule.
Exacerbatiion
an increase in the severity of symptoms.
Immunosuppression
Suppression of the body's immune system and its ability to fight infections or disease
In situ
in place; localized and confined to one area. A very early stage of cancer.
Malignant
Capable of invasion and spread to other sites.
Metastasis
spread of cancer cells from the original site to other parts of the body.
Palliative
A treatment that provides symptomatic relief but not a cure.
Primary site
the place where cancer begins. Primary cancer is named after the organ in which it starts. For example, cancer that starts in the kidney is always kidney cancer, even if it spreads (metastasizes) to other organs such as bones or lungs.
Remission
Absence of all signs from disease.
Secondary site
Secondary site refers to the body part where metastasized cancer cells grow and form secondary tumors
Chapter 20 Radiology
Radiology
AP position
Anterior to posterior view
PA Position
Posterior to anterior view
Lateral Position
On the side
Supine Position
Lying on the back.
Prone Position
Lying on the belly.
Oblique Position
X-Ray tube positioned on an angle.
Angiogram
An x-ray of blood vessels; the person receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray.
Brachytherapy
A type of radiation therapy is which radioactive materials are placed in direct contact with the tissue being treated.
Cholecystogram
oral - x-ray of the gallbladder and bile ducts. You will be asked to swallow some tablets containing contrast material.
Fluoroscopy
X-ray procedure uses a An x-ray procedure in which x-rays are transmitted through the body onto a fluorescent screen. X-ray imaging in involving a fluorescent screen, typically observed in real-time by a video camera, for motion X-rays.
Intravenous pyelogram
a series of x-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein - to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow.
Mammogram
an x-ray of the breast used to detect and diagnose breast disease.
Myelogram
An x-ray of the spinal cord after an injection of dye into the space between the lining of the spinal cord and brain.
Radiographer
Someone who is trained in the technique of taking medical images
Radiologist
A doctor who specializes in creating and interpreting pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures are produced with x-rays, sound waves, or other types of energy.
Radiology
The use of radiation (such as x-rays) or other imaging technologies (such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) to diagnose or treat disease.
Sonogram
The use of radiation (such as x-rays) or other imaging technologies (such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) to diagnose or treat disease.
Tomogram
can show x-ray "slices" through the joint
Alopecia
A loss of hair or baldness.
Anorexia
Lack or loss of appetite for food, accompanied by a noticeable weight loss if it is chronic.
barium sulfate
A metallic poweder that is mixed in water and used for examination of the upper and lower GI tractdiffuser.
radiopaque
Radiopque substances (bones) are those that absorb most of the xrays they are exposed to, allowing only a small frraction of the x-rays to reach the x-ray plate.
film badge
Special film used to detect an drecord the amount of radiation to which they have been exposed.
scan
General term for images of organs, parts, or transverse sections of the body produced in various ways.
Chapter 21
Pharmacology
Antacid
A medicine that neutralizes or reduces acidity, especially acidity in the stomach.
Antibotic
A medicine that neutralizes or reduces acidity, especially acidity in the stomach.
anesthetic
A drug that lessens pain.
analgesic
A drug that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness.
Side effect
An undesired effect of a drug treatment that may range in severity from barely noticeable, to uncomfortable, to dangerous. Side effects are usually predictable.
Contraindication
Factors in a patients condition that make the use of a drug dangerous and ill advised.
Drug tolerance
Effect of a given dose diminish as treatment goes on, and increasing amounts are needed to produce the same effect.
Anticoagulants
Prevens clotting of blood
Anaphylaxis
Exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a drug or foreign organism.
antidote
Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug.
Brand name
Commercial name for a druge: trademark.
Chemical Name
Chemical formula for a drug.
Parenteral administration
Drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins.
Sublinqual adminisration
Drugs are given by placement under the tonuge
Topical administration
Drugs applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes into body cells.
ACE inhibitor
Lowers blood pressure.
Antiemetic
Prevents nausea and vomiting.
Diuretic
Increases the production of urine and thus reduces the volume of fluid in the body.
Emetic
Promotes vomiting
hypnotic
Produces sleep
Narcotic
Habit fgorming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensiblity
tranquilizer
Controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior.
Chapter 22
Pyschiatry
Phobia
Irrational or disabling fear of an object or situation.
Amnesia
Loss of memory
Euphoria
A feeling of well-being or elation; may be drug related.
Labile
Unstable; undergoing rapid emotional change.
Narcissistic
Grandiose sense of self-importance or uniqueness and preoccupation with fantasies of success and power.
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
Anxiety
Varying degrees of uneasiness, apprehension, or dread often accompanied by palpitations, tightness in the chest, breathlessness, and choking sensations
Manic
frenzied: affected with or marked by frenzy or mania uncontrolled by reason
antisocial
No loyalty to or concern for others, and without moral standards; acts only in response to desires and impulses; cannot tolerate frustration and blames others when she or he is at fault
Flat affect
Marked by monotonous voice, immobile face, and no signs of expression.
Conversion disorder
Physical symptom, with no organic basis, appearing as a result of anxiety and conflict.
Apathy
Absence of emotions lack of interest or emotional involvement.
Delusion
Fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.
paranoid
Delusions of persecution or grandeur or combinations of the two.
hallucination
False sensory perception
Hypochondriasis
a preoccupation with bodily aches, pains, and discomforts in the absence of real illness.
bipolar disorder
Alternating periods of mania and depression
compulsation
Uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly.
bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder of binge eating followed by vomiting, purging, and depression.
Bx

CA
Biopsy

Cancer
AP

Ba
anteroposterior

barium
BaE/BE

PA
barium enema

posteroanterior
CT

LL (chest, etc)

RL (chest, etc)
Computed tomography

left lateral

Right lateral
CXR

Fx
chest x-ray

fracture
UGI

US
upper gastrointestinal series

ultrasound
ad lib

c

s
freely as desired

with

without
gtt

NPO

ac

pc

PO
drop

nothing by mouth

before meals

after meals

by mouth
ADHD
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
CNS
central nervous system
DSM
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
DT
delirium tremens
hyper-

neo-

oligo-
above, beyond, excessive

new

little, scanty
pre-, pro-

intra-

milli-
before, in front of

within

one-thousandth
mono-

ultra-
one

beyond
anti-

contra-

syn-
against

opposite, against

together, with
a-, an-

hypo-
no, not

deficient, below
para-
abnormal
-oma

-therapy

-emia
tumor

treatment

blood condition
-ous

-ia

-us
pertaining to

condition

pertaining to
-gram

-graphy

-phylaxis
record

recording

protection
-mania

-phobia

-phoria
obsessive preoccupation

fear

feeling