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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Down syndrome
ALL
Xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism
Melanoma and basal, squamous cell carcinoma
chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsrug gastric remnants
gastric adenocarc
tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, MR)
astrocytoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma
Actinic keratosis
sq cell carc
barretts eso
eso adenocarc
Plummer Vinson sydrome (atrophic glossitis, eso webs, anemia, all due to Fe def)
sq cell carc of esophagus
cirrhosis (alcoholic, hep B or C)
hepatocellular carc
ulcerative colitis (Crohns)
colonic adenocarc
Pagets disease of bone
secondary osteosarc, fibrosarc
Immunodef states
malignant lymphomas
AIDS
aggressive malignant lyphomas (NHL) and Kaposis
AI disease (Hashimotos, MG)
benign and malignant thymomas
Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening)
visceral malignancy
dysplastic nevus
malignant melanoma
achalasia
sq eso carc
sjogrens
B cell lymphoma
abl gene
CML
c-myc gene
Burkitts lymphoma
bcl-2
follicular and undifferentiated lymphoma
erb-B2
breast, ovarian, gastric carcinoma
ras
colon carcinoma
L-myc
lung tumor
N-myc
neuroblastoma
ret
MEN II and III
Rb
retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
BRCA 1 and 2
breast and ovarian cancer
p53
most human cancers, Li Fraumeni syndrome
p16
melanoma
APC
colorectal cancer
WT1
wilms tumor
NF1
neurofibromatosis 1
NF2
neurofibromatosis 2
DPC
pancreatic cancer
DCC
colon cancer
PSA
prostate cancer; used for screening but increased with any prostate pathology
CEA
carcinoembryonic antigen- colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, breast
AFP
hepatocellular carc, yolk sac tumor (germ cell tumor of testis)
B HCG
hydatiform moles, choriocarc, gestational trophoblastic tumor
CA-125
ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors
S-100
melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas
Alk phos
mets to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Pagets
bombesin
neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer
TRAP
hairy cell leukemia
CA-19-9
pancreatic adenocarc
MTX mechanism
folic acid analog that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in decreased DNA and protein synthesis
clinical use MTX
leukemias, lymphomas, choriocarc, sarcomas, abortions, ectopic pregnancy, RA, psoriasis
MTX tox
myelosuppression reversible with leucovorin (folinic acid), macrovesicular fatty change in liver, neural tube defects, lung problems
5FU mechanism
pyrimidine analog inhibits thymidylate synthase
5FU use
colon cancer and other solid tumors, basal cell carc, synergy with MTX (actinic keratoses)
similar to flucytosine
5FU tox
myelosuppression which is not reversible with leucovorin, photosensitivity; rescue with thymidine
6MP mechanism
blocks de novo purine synthesis by inhibiting PRPP synthetase, activated by HGPRTase
6MP use
leukemias, lymphomas
6MP tox
bone marrow, GI, liver
metabolized by xanthine ox so increased tox with allopurinol
ara-C
inhibits DNA pol (just like acyclovir, foscarnet, and rifampin)
used in AML
tox: leukopenia, TCP, megalo anemia
cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide
alkylating agent- x link interstrand DNA, requires bioactivation by liver
used for NHL, breast/ovarian carc, immunosupressant
tox: myelosuppression, hemorrhagic cystitis
nitrosureas
"Mustines"
alkylate DNA, require bioactivation, cross BBB - use for brain cancers
tox: CNS problems
cisplatin, carboplatin
alkylating agent
used for testicular, bladder, ovary and lung cancer
tox: nephrotoxic and acoustic nerve damage
busulfan
alkylates DNA, used in CML, tox: pulm fibrosis, hyperpigmentation
doxorubicin, daunorubicin mechanism
generate free radicals and noncovalent intercalate DNA (creating breaks in DNA)
used for hodkins, myelomas, sarcomas, and solid tumors
doxorubin and daunorubicin tox
cardiotox
dactinomycin
intercalates DNA
use: wilms tumor, ewings sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma
tox: myelosuppression
bleomycin
induces formation of free radicals which cause breaks in DNA strands
used for testicular cancer, lymphomas
tox: pulmonary fibrosis, skin changes
etoposide
inhibits topoisomerase II and increases DNA degradation
used in small cell carc of lung, prostate and testicular carcinoma
prednisone tox
Cushing like symtoms, immunosuppression, cataracts, acne, osteoporosis, hypertension, peptic ulcers, hyperglycemia, psychosis
predisone use
CLL, Hodgkins lymphoma, AI disease
tamoxifen, raloxifene
receptor antagonists in breast, agonists in bone; block binding of estrogen to estrogen receptor positive cells
use: breast cancer
SERM tox
may increase risk of endomitrial carc, hot flashes
raloxifene will not cause endomitral carc because it is an antagonist at the uterus
can be used in breast cancer prevention
trastuzumab
helps kill breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2, cardiotoxic
Imatinib
philadelphia chromosome brc-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor
CML, GI stromal tumors
paclitaxel, taxols
bind to tubulin and hyperstabilize polymerized microtubules so that mitotic spindle cannot break down
used in ovarian and breast carc
vincristine, vinblastine
bind to tubulin and block polymerization of MT so that mitotic spindle cannot form
used for lymphoma, Wilms, choriocarc
vincristine- neurotox, paralytic ileus
vinblastine- blasts bone marrow (suppression)