• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cancer?
-loss of regulation in cell division
What is a tumor?
-mass of cells with no function
_____ tumors invade the surrounding tissues
-malignant (cancerous)
_____ tumors have no effect on surrounding tissue
-benign (noncancerous)
In _____ tumors, individual cells break away and start new tumors elsewhere.
-metastatic (cancerous)
What is cancer often caused by?
-mutations to genes that regulate cell growth and division
What genes are most commonly mutated in cancer cells?
-proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
What genes prevent the development of many cells containing mutations?
-tumor-suppressor genes
What genes code for cell cycle control proteins (stimulate cell division)?
-proto-oncogenes
What genes can become oncogenes when mutated?
-proto-oncogenes
Cancer involves ___________________________________________________________.
-an irregular cell that reproduces more often than it should, eventually causing a cancerous tumor
Cell division normally is _________________________________________________________.
-precisely controlled by an internal clock.
Cell cycles regulation is accomplished by _____________________________________________________________.
-a balance between proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes.
Cancer causing agents often _____________________________.
-cause mutations.
When damage occurs to genes that regulate the cell cycle ____________________________________________________________.
-cells divide uncontrollably.
When genes lose their regulations capability, cells:
-continue to divide
-lose cellular and tissue level organization created by controlled cell division
Cancer cells can invade _____ _____ and _____ _____. This is called _____.
-surrounding tissues and blood vessels
-metastasis
In metastasis, cells:
-are transported via circulatory or lymphatic system to other parts of the body
-reinvade and grow at new location
How is cancer diagnosed?
-biopsy (visually examines cell organization)
-genomics (genetic evaluation)
-proteomics (protein evaluation)
Cancer cells often have distinctive changes in structure due to ____________________________.
-loss of genetic regulation
Since cancer is closely tied to _____ changes, organisms that alter the _____, such a viruses, can play a role in cancer development.
-genetic
-genome
What are possible treatments of cancer?
-removal of tumor
-chemotherapy
-radiation
What is the process of chemotherapy and what areas does it affect?
-interrupts cell division
-targets most dividing cells, good and bad
What is the process of radiation and what areas does it affect?
-damages DNA, causing cell death
-localized to specific tissue
What are the effects of chromosomal alterations?
-miscarriage
-developmental disorders
What is nondisjunction?
-pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate during meiosis
-one gamete receives two of the same type of chromosome, and another gamete receives no copy
Down syndrome affects the ____ __ chromosome and occurs in _______. Chances of having a down syndrome child increase with _____ _____.
-Trisome 21
-nondisjunction
-mother's age
How is cancer "prevented?"
-avoid exposure to mutagens
-don't smoke
-eat a healthy diet
-get vaccinated and avoid exposure to cancer-causing viruses
Nondisjunction in sex chromosomes and their effects?
-XXY- male but sterile
-XYY- male, no effect
-XXX- female, no effect
-X- female, but sterile
What is polyploidy and where does it generally occur?
-3 or more sets of chromosomes
-generally occurs in plants, not animals
In what ways can chromosome structures be altered?
-deletion (removes a part)
-duplication (repeats a part)
-inversion (flips a part to its opposite)
-translocation (crossing over for non-homologous chromosomes
An individual must be _____ _____ to suffer from a recessive disorder.
-recessive homozygous