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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells
metaplasia
transformation of one cell type to another
dysplasia
abnormal development of cells
carcinoma in situ
malignant cells that have not invaded into tissue
invasive cancer
malignant cells that have invaded and can spread further
neoplasia
new cell growth (benign or malignant)
oncogene
normal gene that is vital to normal cell growth
Growth Factor Oncogene Examples
sis-B Chain of PDGF
Receptors Oncogene Examples
erb-2-HER2, EGFR
Intracellular Signal Transduction Oncogene Examples
src, abl, KRAS
Nuclear Transcription Factors Oncogene Examples
myc, hox
Tumor Suppressor Normal Functions
-blocks cell proliferation
-leads to DNA Repair
-leads to apoptosis
Tumor Suppressor Examples
Rb
TP53
APC
Protein Kinase Normal Fxn
-phosphorylate Tyr, Ser, Thr
-conformational change affects protein fxn
-ATP/GTP donors
-drug targets
Angiogenesis
-cells at the center are necrotic without blood flow
How does angiogenesis occur?
-degrade BM of existing vessel
-migration & proliferation of endothelial cells
-lumen formation
-new BM formation and fusion to new vessels
Lung Cancer Metastasis
Bones
Liver
Adrenal Glands
Brain
Breast Cancer Metastasis
Bones
Liver
Lung
Brain
Colon Cancer
Liver
Abdominal Cavity
Lungs
Prostate Cancer
Bones
Pancreatic Cancer
Liver
Abdominal Cavity
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Lungs
Bones
Brain
Surgical Uses in Cancer
-Biopsy
-Resection (-, +, incomplete)
-Metastatectomy
-Palliation (obstruction, bleeding, pain)
Radiation Uses in Cancer
-'radical' for cure
-adjuvant after surgery (local control, survival)
-palliative (pain, bleeding, open airways, prolong life)
Chemotherapy Uses in Cancer
-Curative (leukemia, lymphoma, germ cell)
-Adjuvant (w/ surgery or radiation)
-Palliative (pain, dyspnea, performance, life span)
Interventions for Prevention
-Tobacco Cessation
-Diet (no evidence for supplements)
-Surgery (family syndromes)
-Drugs
-Vaccines
Drugs to Prevent Cancer
Finasteride: Prostate
Tamoxifen: Breast
Raloxifene: Breast
Vaccines to Prevent cancer
Hep B: Hepatocellular
Papilloma Virus: Cervical, Head and Neck
Effective Cancer Screens
-Mammogram
-Colonoscopy, Fecal Occult Blood
-Pap smear
Maybe Useful Screens
-PSA
-Chest CT (smokers)
-Liver Scan/AFP in HB/CV for Hepatoma
Definition of Effective Screen
-reduces morbidity and mortality
-NOT just able to find at an early stage
STAGE of cancer
-describes extend of spread- macroscopic
-T, N, M
-provides prognostic info
-should be useful for determining treatment
GRADE of cancer
-Histological (microscopic)
-frequently synonymous with 'differentiation'
-may be useful for prognosis/treatment
Pediatric Oncology Differences
-environmental exposure less important
-tend to occur during growth spurts
-fewer carcinomas (leukemia, brain/nerve, sarcomas)
-higher cure rates
-potential for long-term toxicity
Long Term Health Issues
-gonadal failure
-growth arrest (children)
-2nd malignancy
-decline in cognitive fxn
-damage to vital organs
Cardiac Toxicity
-Anthracycline -ex// Doxorubicin (topoisomerase inhib)
-Trastuzamab (breast)
Renal Toxicity
-Cisplatin (platinum)
-Mitomycin (alkylator)
Pulmonary Toxicity
-Radiation
-Bleomycin (causes strand breaks)
Differences in Cancer Impact Around the World
-Environmental exposures (hep, infections, smoked foods, cultural habits)
-Health care resources (cost of screening, treatment)
-Genetics (founder effect)