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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
-group of abnormal cells w/altered DNA

Metastasis~ cells move thru blood + lymph nodes
(lymphatic system carries tissue fluid + blood)
-broken off cells invade healthy tissue + start new tumors
what is it...
Benign Tumor
-can’t metastasize
-easily removed
-can kill you if no grow room (brain…)
-wart, cyst, birthmark
-can it kill you?

-where is it...
-uncontrollable dividing cells
-metastasizes fast = cancer
-kills by crowding out healthy cells
-why bad?

-how is it fatal?
Genetic Cause of cancer
(genes in chromosomes in nucleus of cells)
Proto-oncogene- makes cells divide by producing proteins to give instruction

Anti-oncogene- suppresses growth w/protein that monitors protoncogene

Gene Mutation (recessive so can be masked if other gene is good)

Proto-oncogene- becomes oncogene + its protein changes so anticogene protein can’t stop division
-becomes hyperactive too

Anti-oncogene- its protein’s chemical make-up messed up so it can’t suppress growth
-what/where are they...

-what they do normally

p53’s Job:
(gene that makes protein 53)
-directs damage control
-recognizes damage to DNA by sun:

1. Turns off mitosis till damage fixed (DNA polymerase cuts out bad)

2. Signals cell’s lysosome to release enzymes in it = suicide

-what it does...

-how it does it (2 ways)
Manipulation of Environment...
Immune System
1- Immune System:
-helper T cells signal cytotoxic T cells to puncture cancer cells
-TGF-beta makes protein that causes tumor to be “invisible” to ImS
-do what (norm)...
-do what...
Manipulation of Environment...
Blood Vessels
2- Blood Vessels:

-TAF (tumor angiogenesis factor) manipulates blood vessels to grow in tumor

-bring blood (oxygen) + take out waste
-Angie + bible

Age Relation
(immune system = less effective)

-thymus gland produces less T cells (not as effective)

-longer time to get mutation
-what is weaker?
Detecting Cancer:
Papsmere- check for cervical cancer

Testicular/Self Breast exam~ feel for lumps

Moles~ change in color, texture, shape, etc.
Fruits + Veggies:
1.Oxygen mlcs lose electron = free radicals

2.Take electrons from other mlcs = oxidative damage

3.W/Time this can alter cells’ DNA + lead to cancer

3.Fruits + Veggies have vitamins A, C, E, that give up electrons to radicals

4.Stabilize radicals + avoid cancer
-name of oxygen

-what norm = bad

-what in fruits/veggies helps?
Treating Cancer...
Gene Therapy...
what cancer cells do
-copy genes in DNA to mRNA

-proteins made for genes

-growth-promoting gene made into protein causes cells to divide/grow fast
Treating Cancer...
Gene Therapy...
-Anti-sense DNA (synthetic substances) matches part of mRNA

-enters cell + sticks to part of mRNA

-blocks genes from becoming proteins that will make cell divide/grow fast
-name of DNA
-what is new DNA
-what + how ...block
Treating Cancer...
Starving Tumors
(anitangiogenesis factor)

-Avastin (genetically engineered mouse antibody) given w/chemotherapy drugs for colon cancer

-bound to VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) so the protein can’t stimulate blood vessel growth

-tumor can’t get blood, oxygen, nutrient, etc.

-delays tumor growth
-what is Avastin
-used w/...
-for what cancer

-what makes vessels grow