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39 Cards in this Set

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psammoma bodies (laminated, concentric, calcific sperules) are seen in these cancers
papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid


serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary

meningioma

malignant mesothelioma
primary tumors that metastasize to the brain

(lots of bad stuff kill glia)
lung

breast

skin (melanoma)

kidney (renal cell carcinoma)

GI
primary tumors that metastasize to the liver

(cancer sometimes penetrates benign liver)
colon

stomach (early mets)

pancreas

breast

lung
primary tumors that metastasize to bone

(PT Barnum Loves Kids)
prostate* (blastic)

thyroid

testes

breast* (both lytic and blastic)

lung (lytic)

kidney
risk factors for esophageal cancer (ABCDEF)
alcohol/achalasia

barrett's esophagus

cigarettes

diverticuli (zenker)

esophageal web (plummer-vinson)

familial
risk factors for stomach cancer
nitrosamines (japan)

acholorhydria

chronic gastritis

type A blood
features of stomach cancer
linitis plastica (diffuse)

signet ring cells (and krukenburg tumors)

acanthosis nigricans

virchow's node on left

mostly in antrum/pylorus
various causes of colon cancer
IBD (UC)

FAP (apc tumor suppressor on chrom 5q)

HNPCC (DNA mismatch)

peutz-jeghers (hamartous)
features of colon cancer
apple core lesion on barium x-ray

CEA tumor marker

mostly due to chromosomal instability
most common small bowel tumor
carcinoid
features of carcinoid
endocrine cells

dense core bodies on EM

wheezing, right sided murmur, diarrhea, flushing

must metastasize to produce symptoms
causes of hepatocellular carcinoma
hep b/c

wilson's

hemachromatosis

AAT

cirrhosis
features of hepatocellular carcinoma
tender hepatomegaly

ascites

polycythemia (elev. EPO)

hypoglycemia (elev IGF)
features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma
abdominal pain rads to back

weight loss

migratory thrombophlebitis (trousseau's syndrome)

obstructive jaundice/palpable gall bladder (courvoisier's sign) due to head compressing bile duct or ampulla of vater
bone tumor associated with Gardner's syndrome (FAP)
osteoma

new bone grows on old bone, often in the skull
tumors most common in men younger than 25
osteoid osteoma

osteochondroma
tumor found predominately in vertebral column
osteoblastoma
features of the most common benign bone tumor
osteoChondroma

Cartilage Cap

long metaphysis
features of osteoid osteoma
interlacing trabecula of woven bone (radiolucent)

surrounded by osteoblasts

found in proximal tibia and femur

night pain relieved by aspirin
benign carliginous neoplasm found in intramedullary bone
enchondroma

usually in distal extremities
features of giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)
epiphyseal ends of long bones

locally aggressive , usually around the knee

double bubble/soap bubble on x-ray

spindle shaped cels with multinucleated giant cells

20-40 yrs
features of chondrosarcoma
expansile glistening mass within the medullary cavity

pelvis or proximal femur

goes to the lung

30-60 years old
features of Ewing's sarcoma
anaplastic small blue cell

onion skin appearance

11;22 translocation

daiphysis of long bones, pelvis, scapula, ribs

boys less than 15

aggressive with early mets
features of osteosarcoma
2MC primary malignant tumor after MM

metaphysis of long bones (knee)

Codman's triangle (tumor lifts periosteum)

age 10-20
pre-disposing factors for osteosarcoma
paget's disease

Rb

bone infarcts

radiation

poor prognosis :-(
features of lipoma
soft, well encapsulated fat tumor

benign

excision is usually curative
features of liposarcoma
malignant fat tumor

large

will recur if not adequately excised
features of rhabdomyosarcoma
most common soft tissue tumor of childhood

malignant

arises from skeletal muscle, usually in head/neck

contains desmin
features of glioblastoma multiforme
usually found in white matter (brain stem in kids)

cerebral hemispheres

can cross corpus callosum

stains for GFAP

pseudopalisading pleomorphic tumors cells (central necrosis)

glomeruloid
features of meningioma
convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region

arises from arachnoid cells

spindle cells concentrically arranged in whorled pattern

can cause mass lesions and seizures

osteoblastic
features of schwannoma
schwann cell origin

CN8

bilateral, associated with NF2
features of oligodendroglioma
frontal lobes (or cerebral hemispheres)

chicken wire capillary pattern

fried egg appearance (round nuceli with clear cytoplasm)
features of pituitary adenoma
prolactin secreting

bitemporal hemianopia

hyper or hypo-pituitarism

from Rathke's pouch
features of pilocytic astrocytoma
posterior fossa

rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic, corkscrew)

mural nodules
features of medulloblastoma
highly malignant cerebellar tumor

primitive neuroectodermal tumor

can compress 4V

rosette/pseudorosette pattern

neuronal and glial differentiation
features of ependymoma
4V

rod shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near nucleus
features of hemangioblastoma
cerebellar usually

von Hippel Lindau if found with retinal angiomas

produces EPO-->2* polycythemia



foamy cells and high vascularity
features of craniopharyngioma
benign

confused with pituitary adenoma

causes diabetes insipidus and visual defects

calcification common (tooth like)

Rathke's pouch.

benign
uses of Ki-67
neoplastic replicative activity of brain tumors, growth rate and prognosis