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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 signs/symptoms of lung cancer?
persistent cough, hemoptysis & SOB on exertion
What test would be used for diagnosing Lung Cancer? And when would it be done?
Sputum for cytology
Done when first arise in am.
Name 4 types of tissue in Lung Cancer.
1. Squamous Cell - Slow growing
2. Adenocarcinoma - Mod. Growing
3. Large Cell Anaplastic - Fast Growing
4. Small Cell (Oat Cell) - Very Fast Growing
Name 2 Environmental pollutants that contribute to Lung Cancer.
1. Nitrate (soil, rock)
2. Radon (foundation in homes <0.4 = safe level)
If a pt has mets to the bone with lung cancer what would calcium level be? and Why?
Increased.

Hypercalcemia - because we are breaking down bone.
In a pt with lung cancer that has a chest tube when would you notify the MD.
if chest tube output is > 70ml/hr or bright red.
What would the Vital signs be for a pt with lung cancer after surgery?
BS, RR, Pulse ox Q 1hr.
What position would you place a lung cancer pt in after surgery (lobectomy or pneumoectomy)?
HOB elevated to semi-fowlers for optimal lung expansion

On unaffected side for at least 2 days postop
What type of diet would you give a pt with lung cancer after surgery (lobectomy or pneumoectomy)?
High in protein, calories & small frequent meals (may need TPN or enteral)
Name 11 Signs & symptoms of Lung cancer.
1.cough
2. hemoptysis
3. SOB
4.chest pain
5. Fever
6. chills
7. Wt. Loss / anorexia
8. Dyspnea
9. Wheezing
10 Weakness
11. Fatigue
Name the 4 types of surgery that can be done for a pt with lung cancer.
1. Wedge
2. Segmental
3. Lobectomy
4. Pneumoectomy
What are the 2 signs that your lung cancer pt is experiencing hypoxemia?
1. Tachycardia
2. Tachypnea
Where is the most common site for pancreatic cancer?
Head of the pancreas
What is the 1st sign/symptom of pancreatic cancer?
Jaundis
What 2 labs would indicate pancreatic cancer?
^ amalayse & ^ lypase
Name the 5 risk factors for Pancreatic Cancer.
1. Cigarettes
2. Food high in fat & protein
3. Food Additives
4. Occupation exposure (dry cleaning chemicals, gasoline)
5. Chronic pancreatitis
What is the early sign of Pancreatic Cancer?
dull intermittent epigastric pain or
DM is Islet cells are involved
What is the late sign of Pancreatic Cancer?
continuous pain that radiates to the right upper quad or dorsolumbar area (like gallbladder)
What is a very late sign of Pancreatic Cancer?
Anorexia, wt loss, palpable mass in the subumbilical or left hypochodrial region, diarrhea, jaundice
What labs are used in the diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer?
^ bilirubin
^ amylase & lypase
^ PT
^ alkaline phosphatase (with biliary obstruction)
FBS ^ or
^ tumor markers CEA, AFP & serum immunoreactive elastase I
What are the treatments for Pancreatic Cancer?
Vit. K - for PT deficiency
Blood - for anemia
IV's
Surgery
What is a Whipple Procedure?
its a pancreatoduodenectomy. You excise the head of the pancreas with entire duodenum & distal 1/3 of stomach.
What is the purpose of a Whipple Procedure?
To allow gastric hepatic & pancreatic secretions to empty inot jejunum so that digestion can occur.
What type of diet would your pt be on if they had pancreatic cancer & a Whipple procedure was done?
Bland, low fat diet.
Avoid caffeine, alcohol to prevent excess gastric acidity.
Small freq meals to help prevent dumping syndrome.
Name the 3 types of Skin Cancer.
1. Basal Cell Epithelioma
2. Melanoma
3. Squamous Cell
Which of the 3 types of skin cancer is the deadliest? and Why?
Melanoma - Because it spreads through the lymph & vascular system rapidly
What are Leukoplakia?
White patches
What are Nevi?
moles, sun spots, brown or black patches
What is Senile Keratosis?
a build up of tissue as you grow older.
AKA: age spots or liver spots
What are the 8 causes of Skin Cancer?
1. chemical irritants (coal, tar, creosote
2. Friction or chronic irritation (waist or bra line)
3. Heredity
4. Immunosupressive drugs (steroids, chemo)
5. Infared heat or light (tanning bed)
6. Precancerous lesions (nevi, leukoplakia)
7. Radiation
8. UV Radiation
What is the ABCD rule for all lesions?
A = Asymmetry (1/2 doesn't match the other 1/2)
B = Border (irregular, edges)
C = Color (variation or dark black, red, blueish purple)
D = Diameter (>6cm, size of pencil eraser)
What is done to diagnos skin cancer?
Skin biopsy
Describe Basal Cell.
superficial, red patch, scaly, crusting, similar to eczema or a small papule with pearly borders.
May bleed easy
Common on face head neck
Describe malignant Melanoma.
Irregular color, irregular surface, irregular border
Describe Squamous cells.
Early: firm nodules with indistinct borders with scaling & ulceration, looks opaque (can see through)
Late: lesion covered with scales or horn-like projections from keratinization.
What are the 5 risk factors for Melanoma?
1. Sunburns
2. Fair skin
3. Immunosuppression
4. Heredity
5. Periods of increased hormonal activity (usually follows a pregnancy)
Describe a Stage I Malignant Melanoma.
vertical growth up to 1.5 cm in depth, does not go past epidermis 95% cure rate
Describe a Stage II malignant melanoma.
vertical growth into the dermis & blood vessels.
Usually die within 10 yrs.
What is the treatment for Malignant Melanoma?
Cryosurgery
What are some causes of Colerectal Cancer?
1. high fat diet
2. Over age 40
3. GI tract diseases (chron's )
4. HX of ulcerative colitis
5. Inherited tendency toward colon polyps
6. breast & gyn cancers.
Late Signs & Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer?
1. Malaise & fatigue
2. Local Obstruction
3. Metastasis - usually to liver
4. Pain
5. wt loss
6. Pallor
7. Cachexia
8. Ascites
What are the early signs & symptoms of Colorectal Cancer?
1. Fecal Occult Blood
2. Constipation alternating with diarrhea.
What is a proctoscopy or sigmoidoscopy?
Visualization of the lower GI tract
What is a colonoscopy?
viualization of colon up to the ileocecal valve - can remove polyps & biopsy.
What is a Barium X-Ray?
uses dual contrast with air. Can locate lesions that are manually or visually undetectable. This test should follow an endoscopy because barium interferes with endoscopy.