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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
top 5 causes of death
1. heart disease
2. cancer
3. cerebrovascular
4. chronic lower respiratory diseease
5. accidents
top 4 cancer killers (men and women)
1. lung/broncus
2. colorectal
3. breast
4. prostate
top 3 cancer killers (men)
1. lung/bronchus
2. prostate
3. colorectal
top 3 cancer killers (women)
1. lung/broncus
2. breast
3. colorectal
disease of aging
67% of deaths occur after age 65
cancer: definition
mass of tissue, the growth of which is incoordinate with the surrounding normal tissues and that persists in the absence of the inciting stimulus
labile cells
continue to multiply throughout life (skin, nails, hair)
stable cells
retain latent capacity to regenerate (most glands, kidney tubules)
permanent cells
cannot regenerate (thought: neurons, muscle cells)
stromal repair
proliferation of fibroblast and capillary buds
subsequent laying down of collagen to produce a scar
results in loss of specialized parenchymal function
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells in tissue/organ
physiologic or pathologic
cells are essentially normal (may have changes in appearance)
metaplasia
addaptive substitution of one cell type for another
usually represents adaptive or protective response
usually reversible
occurs in both epithelial and connective tissue
atypical metaplasia
transition between metaplasia and dysplasia
judgement call
dysplasia
loss in uniformity of individual cells
loss in architectural organization
pleomorphism and hyperchromatic nuclei
usually reversible (if stimulus is removed)
malignant transformation sometimes associated
anaplasia
without form
failure of differentiation of reserve or stem cells
marked pleomorphism
neoplasia
abnormal mass of tissue
irreversible
benign neoplasm
based n judgment of tumor's behavior
considered relatively innocent
remain localized
cannot spread
tend to become enclosed within fibrous capsule
generally amenable to local surgical removal and survival of patient
malignant neoplasm
implies can invade and destroy adjacent structures
implies can spread to distant sites to cause death
two components:
-parenchyma
-stroma
do not develop capsules
metastasis
anatomically distant cancer growth
seeding throughout body cavities
distinct transplantation
lymphatic permeation
transport through blood vessels
differentiation
extent to which cells resemble normal forebearers and achieve fully mature, specialized, functional, morphological characteristics
poorly differentiated cells
no specialized characteristics
resemble embryonic primitive stem cell (anaplastic)
well-differentiated cels
high level of specialization
maturation
sarcoma
malignant neoplasm
arising from mesenchymal tissue
carcinoma
malignant neoplasm
arising from epithelial cells
apoptosis
programmed cell death
activation of p53 gene
common in embryonic development
tumor: grade 1
well differentiated
cells resemble those of origin
retain some specialized function
tumor: grade 2
moderately differentiated
shows less resemblance to tissue of origin
more variation
increased mitosis
tumor: grade 3
poorly differentiated
cells don't resemble tissue of origin
much variation
increased mitosis
tumor: grade 4
very poorly differentiated
no resemblance to tissue of origin
great variation (very anaplastic)
TNM system of staging tumors
T0 - T3: primary tumor size
N0 - N2: lymph node involement
M0 - M2: extent of metastasis
S phase
DNA synthesis
G2 phase
gap between end of S phase and mitosis
time required to organize nucleus for mitosis
M phase
mitosis
chromosomal condensation and chromosomal segregation, cell division yielding 2 daughter cells
usually requires about an hour to complete
G1 phase
gap between mitosis and S phase
energy directed toward synthesis of RNA and protein
G0 phase
outside the loop
do not respond to signals that normally prompt initiation of DNA synthesis
total cell cycle time
Tc
from G1 through M
normal human cells: 1 to 2 days
most malignant cells: 2 to 3 days
critical cell population
often largely in G0
Gompertz curve
mathematical model applied to tumor cell growth rates
factors influencing:
hypoxia
nutrient/hormone supply
toxic metabolites
inhibitory cell-to-cell communication
tumor growth characteristics
10^6 - 20 doublings - 1 mm
10^9 - 30 doublings - 1.24 cm
limit of clinical detection
10^12 - 40 doublings - 20 cm
almost all malignant tumors cause death when reach this size
time required to reach 10^9
<2 years
cachexia
wasting
TNF probably contributes to wasting in humans
proto-oncogenes
function in regulation of normal cell growth/differentiation
oncogenes
altered (mutated) proto-oncogenes
encode regulatory protein that has dominant transforming properties
can cause overexpression of growth-related gene products resulting in tumor formation
tumor suppressor genes
inhibit cell division
mutations may remove growth inhibition
recessive trait
multiple cell accidents
evidence indicates several independent accidents must occur in one cell in order for tumor development to begin
referred to as malignant transformation