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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many plant species are there?
What are the four main groups of land plants and examples?
bryophytes (mosses), pteridophytes (ferns), gymnosperms (pines) and angiosperms (flowers)
What are the divisions of land plants?
Vascular plants include pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, while seed plants include just gymnosperms and angiosperms.
What characteristics alone fail to distinguish plants from certain algae?
Plants and some algae are multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs with cellulose cell walls and chlorophyll a and b.
What two cellular features do only charophyceans and plants have?
rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes and enzymes within peroxisomes
What two derived homologies put charophyceans and plants together?
similar flagellated sperm and the formation of a phragmoplast (cytoskeleton and vesicles line up) when new cell walls are formed during cytokinesis
What are five characteristics of plants but not charophyceans?
apical meristems, dependent multicellular embryoes, alternation of generations, different spores, and multicellular gametangia
What are apical meristems?
regions of cell division near the ends of shoots and roots, making all sorts of plant cells
Why are land plants called embryophytes?
Plant embryos and maternal tissue have a boundary of placental transfer cells, through which nutrients are transferred to the embryo.
What are the two generations in alternation of generations called, and what do they do?
Haploid is gametophyte, the dominant generation in bryophytes, making gametes, that fertilize each other.
Diploid is sporophyte, dominant in all but bryophytes, using meiosis to make spores.
What two traits involving spores separate plants from charophyceans?
Plant spore cell walls have the durable polymer sporopollenin, and multicellular sporangia protect the spores before they are ready to be released.
Where do plant gametophytes make their gametes?
It all happens in multicellular gametangia organs, with a single egg being made within each female gametangium, or archegonium, and a bunch of sperm made in each male gametangium, or antheridium.
What are three terrestial adaptations made by plants?
A waxy cuticle protects against water loss and microbes, with stomata to exchange gases though. Xylem and phloem transport water throughout plants. Secondary compounds made off the main anabolic pathways do a variety of things.
What are some examples of secondary compounds and their uses in plants?
Alkaloids, terpenes and tannins defend land plants against herbivores, flavanoids absorb UV, phenolics combat pathogens and solidify structure.
How many years ago did plants invade the land?
fossils say >500M, with the oldest in 550M Cambrian rocks, and there are lots of spores at 460M, indicating they were widespread by then
What two charophyceans are most closely related to plants?
Chara and Coleochaete
How is alternation of generations hypothesized to arise?
through a delay before meiosis, since the closest charophyceans are haploid
Where is sporopollenin hypothesized to arise?
in shallow water
What is "deep green"?
an international initiative trying to establish the monophyletic clades of plants
What are the three potential plant kingdoms?
Plantae, which has land plants, Streptophyta, which includes charophyceans and land plants, and Viridiplantae, which has chlorophytes, charophyceans, and land plants
What are the three phyla of bryophytes and their common names?
Hepatophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts), and Bryophyta (mosses)
What are four "mosses" that aren't bryophytes?
Irish moss (red seaweed), reindeer moss (lichen), club mosses (pteridophytes), and Spanish moss (flowering plant)
What are protonemata and what do they do?
masses of green cell-thick filaments made from germinating moss spores that absorb water/minerals and make meristems and mature gametophores
What do bryophyte tissues lack that makes them nonvascular plants and limits their height?
What are rhizoids and what do they do?
long clear cells or filaments that hold bryophytes down
Describe a moss sporophyte.
Its foot gets nutrients and food from the parent gametophyte, the stemlike seta brings it to the sporangium (or capsule), which makes up to 50 million spores. A calyptra protects the capsule before it releases the spores, and the upper part of the capsule, the peristome, allows the spores to be distributed gradually.
Why are mosses able to live in colder and drier environments than vascular plants?
They can suffer more dessication and survive.
What does the moss Sphagnum do?
Peat moss inhabits wetlands, makes up peat, makes phenolic compounds that resist decay and acids which hamper bacteria.
How do humans use Sphagnum?
during wartime to cover wounds, as a soil conditioner, to pack plant roots (absorbing water), and to burn as peat
What evolved between mosslike ancestors and vascular plants?
protracheophyte polysporangiophytes, which had branched, independent sporophytes similar in size to the gametophytes
What was the first known vascular plant?
Cooksonia, an extinct plant from 408Ma with lignified cells similar to pteridophyte xylem
How many phyla of plants are there, and how are they distributed?
10, 3 bryophyte, 2 pteridophyte, 4 gymnosperm, and 1 angiosperm
What are the two phyla of seedless vascular plants and examples of their members?
Lycophyta (lycophytes) and Pterophyta (ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails)
Which pteridophyte phyla diverged first?
What is the main difference between lycophyte leaves and other vascular plant leaves?
Lycophyte leaves are simpler and smaller, called microphylls, while other leaves are bigger due to branching of the vascular system, and are called megaphylls.
Hypothetically speaking, how did megaphylls evolve?
Some kind of webbing joined nearby microphylls, making branched leaves
Summarize the life cycle of a fern.
A spore develops into a gametophyte, which makes sperm and eggs at different times to cross-fertilize, and fertilization results in a new sporophyte, which develops as a fern with sporangia that release new spores.
Why did big lycophytes die off?
These lycophytes were giant, more than 40 meters tall, but required the warm and moist environment of the Carboniferous period, and died out when the weather cooled and dried after it.
About how many species of lycophytes are there?
a thousand
Describe the structure of a lycophyte sporophyte.
Vertical stems hold small green microphylls (leaves), while horizontal stems attach to the roots. Sporophylls are specialized cone-shaped leaves with sporangia.
How do lycophytes reproduce?
The sporophyte releases oil-rich spores in clouds that disperse to make tiny haploid gametophytes that are either above ground photosynthesizers or underground fungi symbionts.
What are the three types of pteridophytes in phylum Pterophyta?
psilophytes (whisk ferns), sphenophytes (horsetails) and ferns
What's special about psilophytes?
They are very similar to Cooksonia, have Y-shaped (dichotomous) branching, and don't have true leaves and roots, but that actually devolved from a fernlike ancestor
How many species of sphenophytes are there?
15, all in the genus Equisetum
Describe the structure of horsetails.
upright photosynthetic stems and horizontal rooted stems (rhizomes) with air channels going through the plant to get oxygen throughout and sporangia-bearing cones
How many species of ferns are there?
Describe the structure of ferns.
horizontal rhizomes grow big compound leaves known as fronds with lots of vascular branching
How do ferns release their spores?
Sori, which are clusters of sporangia on the undersides of their leaves, launch their spores into the wind.
When was the Carboniferous period?
360-290 Ma
How did coal form?
Peat, dead organic matter primarily made in the Carboniferous of seedless vascular plants, piled up, was buried by ocean sediments, and compressed into coal by heat and pressure.
What is the difference between a homosporous plant and a heterosporous plant?
A homosporous plant only makes one type of spore, so the gametophyte is bisexual, while a heterosporous plant makes megaspores, which become female gametophytes, and microspores, which become male gametophytes.