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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Goldenseal?
one of top 5 selling herbals in US
little scientific evidence of safety/efficacy
use as narcotic concealment (urine tests)
2 risks of Goldenseal?
may increase risk of bleeing (warfarin, anti-platelets, NSAIDS)/may lower blood sugar
what are the functions of probiotics?
maintain or restore normal intestinal flora; prevent overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms; stimulate immune system; enhance digestion and absorption of proteins, fats, ca2+, phosphorous
what microorganism is in Florastor?
saccharomyces boulardii
what are probiotics possibly effective for?
Ab-associated diarrhea and ADRs, may also help prevent develop. of resistance, may reduce levels of H. pylori (duodenal ulcers), yogurt may assists in eradication during tx
what are probiotics possibly effective for?
atopic dermatitis (relates to allergy)
what else are probiotcs possibly effective for?
diarrhea PREVENTION, infectious diarrhea, some evidence of faster growth in kids, infections, IBD, UC, allergies
what has insufficent evidence for probiotics?
amoebiassis, bacterial infect, bacter. vaginosis, Crohn's disease, acute diarrhea, hyperlipidemia, lactose intoler, UTI, VVC
SEs of probiotics?
gas- will decrese with use
CI of probiotics?
lactose intolerance
what part of Gingko biloba plant is used?
MOA of gingko?
vasodilation, antioxidant, antiinflammatory properties, decrease platelet aggregation
what is gingko used for?
Alzheimer's, dementia, ceregral insufficiencies, improved thinking (elderly), glaucoma, Diabetic neuropathy
what is gingko possibly effective for?
age related memory impairment, cognitive functioning, dementia (Alzeihmer's), PMS, glaucoma
what is gingko possibly ineffective for?
altitude sickness, SAD
what do the clinical trials with Alzheimer's and gingko show?
modest improvement of symptoms, may be beneficial in early stages, no studies measuring "delaying progression"
what is the onset of gingko in pts with AD?
6-8 wks, must be used EARLY in disease
SE of gingko?
HA, nausea, GI upset, allergic skin rxns, potenital bleeding and hypersensitivity
precautions with gingko?
cross sensitivity wtih urushiol allergy, seizures (seed), surgery in next 2 wks (risk of bleeding), bleeding disorders, diabetes (increase or decrease BG)
drug intrxns with gingko?
anticoagulants, meds that lower seizure threshold/anticonvulsants, Buspirone, antidiabetic meds
what is huperzine A?
derived from Chines, club moss, potential uses for dementia and improved cognitive function, swelling and fever in chinese culture
MOA or Huperizine A?
acetylchonlinesterase inhibition similar to Aricept (donepezil) cause evidence that AD is related to decrease in AChE
what is huperzine A possibly effective for?
cognitive function (healthy adolescents), dementia
SE of huperzine A?
opposite of anticholinergic: diarrhea, muscles spasms, light cramps, hypersalivation, increased urination, sweating, blurred vision
high doses of huperzine A may cause?
bronchospasms, seizures, bradycardia, arrhythmias
caution huperzine A use in?
ashtam/COPD, CVD, intestinal or urogential obstrutcion, PUD, or seizures
drug intrxns with huperzine A?
anticholinergics, beta blockers, Ca2+ channel blockers, MAOIs, donepizil
MOA of phsophatidylserine?
protect neurons, phospholipid so may increase cell membrane integraty and fluidity, normalize NT transmission, might increase ACH, NEpi, 5HT, DA
se of phosphatidylserine?
GI and insomnia
d-di of phosphatidylserine?
anicholinergics, b blockers, ca channels blockers, MAOIs, donepizil, SSRIs
what is vit E?
fat solublie vitamin, antioxidant
what is vit E possibly effective for?
age related macular denegeration, Alzheimer's disease/dementia, dysmenorrhea/PMS
what is vit e possibly ineffective for?
atherosclerosis, scarring
dose reccomendations of vit E?
max 400 IU daily
vit E and heart disease prevention?
likely ineffective, no benefit, regular use of high dose may even increase risk of death
what risks are associated with vit e?
bleeding risk (caution with H/O bleeding, or taking blood thinning meds
what herbal supplements are possibly effective for Alzheimer's?
ginkgo leaf extract, vit E, huperzine A, phsophatidylserine,
what are possbily ineffective for Alzheimer's?
vit C, beta carotene, DHEA
types of ginseng?
american, asian, siberian

american and asian have similar uses
what is active constituent of ginseng? and mechanisms?
many mechanisms: antioxidant, immuno-stimulant, increases ACh
what is Chinese ginseng possibly effective for?
thinking and memory
erectile dysfunction
what is chinese ginseng possibly ineffective for?
improving athletic performance
what is American ginseng possibly effective for?
lowering blood sugar after a meal (type II diabetes)
preventing respiratory tract infections
insufficient evidence for american ginseng and?
SE of ginseng?
menstrual irregularities (estrogen effect), increasted QTc interval (Asian ginseng)
what precautions do you take with Ginseng?
breast, uterine, or ovarian CA, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids
Ginseng Drug Intrxns?
anticoagulants/antiplatelets, hypoglycemics, MAOI's, antihypertensives, meds that increase QTc interval (Asian g.), HRT/OCs
there is insufficient evidence of Coenzyme Q10 and ??
statin myopathy

SE of statins is myopathy
WHat is active ingredient of garlic?
allicin==you want the smelly garlic ONLY, many theries of MOA
what is garlic possibly effective for?
high BP, atherosclerosis

poss ineff: high cholesterol
SE of garlic?
bad breath, burn if touches skin
precaution wth garlic?
bleeding disorder, surgery within 2 wks
drug intrxns with garlic?
anticoagulants, antiplatelet, NSAIDS, antihypertensives (may decrease BP), hypoglycemics (may lower BG), protease inhibitors, thyroid meds
what is RX version of fish oil: omega 3 fa
what is effective for hyperlipidemia, likely effective and possibly ineffective?
effective: fish oil, niacin
likely effective: red yeast rice
possibly ineffective: garlic
top 10 drug supplement intrxns?
1. grapefruit
2. st johns wort
3. garlic: cyp 3A4 inducer
4. pomegranate juice (similar to 1)
5. gingko: anticonvulsants and seizure threshold lowering drugs)
6. bitter orange and QT interval prolonging drugs, CV problems
7. calcium and levothyroxine and TCN?FQ (chelation)
8. noni juice and ACE inhibitors
9. kava: hepatotoxic drugs
10. gingko and warfarin