Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

236 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of environment is Blastomyces dermatitidis found in?
Sandy, acid soil with proximity to water. In environment, found in mycelial form which produces infective spores.
What parts of the US is blasto common?
Central to southeastern US.
What are the three forms of blastomycosis?
Pulmonary, Disseminated disease, local cutaneous infection
What is the pathogenesis of blastomycosis?
Inhalation of spores - spores deposited in alveoli - phagocytized by macophages - transforms into yeast and reproduces
When does the pulmonary form develop versus the dissiminated form?
Pulmonary form develops if effective immunity - otherwise, will develop dissiminated form
What kind of immunity is involved with fungal infections, cell-mediated or humoral?
Cell-mediated. Humoral response may occur but offers no protection.
How long is the incubation period for blastomycosis?
5-12 weeks
What are the clinical signs of dissiminated disease?
Generalized lymphadenopathy, cutaneous signs - multiple lesions, draining tracts, ulcerative lesions, proliferative granulomatous lesions.
Ocular signs: uveitis, retinal granulomas, retinal detachment, corneal edema, inflammation of any segment, glaucoma
Bone: lameness, appendicular skeleton or vertebrae affected, joints may be involved
U/G tract: males, hematuria, dysuria, tenesmus, bladder, prostatic or testicular infection
CNS: uncommon, seizures, depression, behavior changes, spinal cord disease
Is feline blastomycosis more or less common than canine blastomycosis?
less common
What two signs are seen more frequently with feline blastomycosis
CNS involvement is more typical, large abscesses more frequently seen
What changes are typical on CBC and Chem with blastomycosis
Mild anemia and leukocytosis with left shift, lymphopenia and monocytosis. Hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercalcemia
What will radiographs show with blastomycosis?
diffuse, interstitial, miliary or nodular pattern. alveolar and peribronchial patterns, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion. Bone radiographs will show predominantly lysis with periosteal proliferation and soft tissue swelling. Usually only one bone is involved and will be distal to the stifle or elbow.
What is the best way to diagnose Blasto?
Cytology - impression smears from skin lesions; FNA of lymph nodes, bone, eye; TTW, lung FNA, BAL
T or F...serology is a reliable way to diagnose Blasto.
List, in order of decreasing efficacy, what fungal diseases are susceptible to amphotericin B.
Blasto > Histo > Crypto > Candida > Sporothrix > Coccidiodes
T or F: Amphotericin B works well for ocular infections, brain/CNS involvement, and joint infections
What is the mechanism of action of Amphotericin B?
It binds to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane.
What is the major toxicity with Amphotericin B? What are some minor toxicity concerns?
GI signs, seizures, arrhythmias, anemia, hypokalemia, phlebitis, fever
What is the drug of choice for treatment of blastomycosis?
Which drug for systemic fungal diseases can minimally penetrate into the eye and CSF?
This drug is highly protein-bound and widely distributes throughout the body.
T or F: Itraconazole is a relatively inexpensive drug
False - it's expensive
Which azole is relatively inexpensive, but has more side effects?
Ketoconazole - anorexia, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, hepatotoxic, may see signs of hypocortisolemia
How is fluconazole excreted?
How can flucanzole be administered?
PO or IV
This drug has low protein binding and distributes into almost all tissues.
This drug easily penetrates into the CSF
What other drugs may be given to treat a patient with a systemic fungal disease?
Anti-inflammatory: nonsteroidals, but don't supress immune system!
What is the relapse rate of blastomycosis?
What is the pathogenesis of coccidioides immitis?
Mycelial phase in soil - arthroconidia inhaled - spherule - endospores develop within spherule - spherule breaks open and releases endospores
Are neutrophils attracted to coccidiodes sphereules?
No - and they can't penetrate their walls.
T or F - Coccidiodes endosphores are rather large and cannot be phagocytized.
False, they are very small
What is the most often clinical sign with coccidiomycosis?
Most often asymptomatic - sometimes fever, inappetance, weight loss
What type of respiratory signs are seen with coccidiomycosis?
Dry, harsh cough secondary to increased hilar LNs or diffuse interstitial disease. Moist, productive cough secondary to alveolar disease.
This system fungal infection is sometimes associated with lameness in more than one leg.
True or false: coccidiomycosis is more likely to have CNS signs than blastomycosis
Cats are more likely to have this with coccidiomycosis.
Draining skin lesions
Name four types of cardiac disease that may be caused by coccidiomycosis.
pericardial effusion, constrictive pericardidtis, arrythmias, depressed contractility
What does a CBC show with coccidiomycosis?
mild normochromic, normocytic anemia; moderate leukocytosis
What does a chem panel show with coccidiomycosis?
hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia
T or F: Cytology and histopathology diagnosis of Coccidioides imitis is relatively easy given the large number of organisms usually seen.
False - low numbers of organisms make it hard to diagnose.
Is serology useful for diagnosing Coccidioides?
Yes - evokes an IgM response
What type of soil is Histo found in?
Nitrogen-rich soil (lots of bird or bat poop)
What is the pathogenesis of Histo?
Mycelial phase in soil - macro and microconidia - inhaled - convert to yeast and reproduce by budding - phagocytized by macrophages - intracllular replication - pulmonary disease or disseminated disease
What is the incubation period of Histo?
12-16 days
Are cats or dogs more likely to get Histo?
What age group does Histo more often affect?
Young (<4 years)
What are the signs of feline Histoplasmosis?
Non-specific: depression, anorexia, weight loss, fever, pale MM, dyspnea, LN enlarged, hepatosplenomegaly, ocular lesions, bony lesions, skin lesions
What are some GI signs associated with canine Histo?
small or large bowel diarrhea, visceral lymphadenopathy, ascites, icterus, hepatosplenomegaly
What are the CBC findings with Histoplasmosis?
normochromic, normocytic, nonregerative anemia, variable WBC, thrombocytopenia
What are the Chem findings with Histoplasmosis?
hypoalbuminemia w/disseminated GI disease, hyperglobulinemia, elevated liver enzymes, hypercalcemia (more common in cats)
Are there any coagulation test abnormalities with Histoplasmosis?
clotting times may be increased, DIC possible
What is seen on imaging dx with Histoplasmosis?
Hilar lymphadenopathy, diffuse interstitial pattern coalescing to nodular, poor quality rads due to ascites, thickened irregular intestines
What bones are most often affected with histoplasmosis?
carpal and tarsal bones
What are the best tissues to do a FNA on to find histo? Where will the organisms be found?
In macrophages in liver, lung, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes
What is the drug of choice for Histoplasmosis?
What are some distinguishing features of Aspergillus to identify it on cytology?
Branches at 45 degree angles to form non-pigmented hyphae
What species of Aspergillus is likely to cause nasal and paranasal sinus disease?
A. fumigatus
What species of Asperfillus are likely to cause disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients?
A. terreus, A. deflectus, A. flavipes
What usually prevents colonization by A. fumigatus in the body?
Local immune responses from IgA and macrophages.
What infectious disease may cause nasal depigmentation?
What is the best imaging modality to evaluate Aspergillosis?
What diagnostics may be helpful in diagnosing nasal Aspergillosis?
Rhinoscopy, cytology/histopathology (may have false positives or negatives), serology (false negatives and positvies)
Describe the treatment for nasal aspergillosis.
Infuse Clotrimazole and Enilconazole through catheters in the nasal cavities/sinuses. 1-3 treatments needed for cure.
What breed is predisposed to systemic aspergillosis?
How does aspergillosis become systemic? Why?
Spreads hematogenously. Suspected to be linked to a deficiency in mucosal IgA. In cats, linked to FeLV, FIP, panleukopenia infection, glucocorticoid therapy or other immunosuppressive condition.
What fungal disease can involve vertebral pain leading to paraparesis, parapalegia, or limb lameness?
With disseminated Aspergillosis, are GI signs more common in dogs or cats?
Cats - especially vomiting.
What drug is usually contraindicated in disseminated aspergillosis treatment due to renal involvement?
Amphotericin B
When does cryptococcus have a capsule?
Always when growing in tissues, but not necessarily when in envrionment.
What is the major reservoir of cryptococcus?
Avian feces
Where is cryptococcus found?
soil, fruits, oropharynx, skin and GI of healthy people
What species of cryptococcus has been isolated only from the bark and leaf litter of eucalyptus trees?
C. neofromans var. gattii
Does cryptococcus always cause disease?
No - it is an opportunistic pathogen, but it doens't need an immunocompromised host either.
What is the most common systemic mycosis of the cat?
What breed is over-represented for crypto?
What percentage of cats has skin or SQ lesions with crypto?
When are ocular lesions seen in cats with crypto? What occular signs are seen?
Seen in cats with CNS involvement. Granulomatous chorioretinitis, retinal detachment, optic neuritis, panopthalmitis.
What percentage of cats show CNS involvement of crypto?
What dog breeds are over-represented for crypto?
Dobermans, Great Danes, labs and cockers.
Is fever a common clinical sign in dogs with crypto?
What percentage of dogs with crypto have CNS involvement?
What is seen in the CBC with crypto infections?
Often normal, some have mild nonregerative anemia and neutrophilia.
What types of samples/tissues should cytology be done on to diagnose crypto?
nasal and skin exudates, CSF, tissue aspirates, ocular paracentesis, urine sediments
Is serology useful in diagnosing crypto? Describe the test.
Yes - latex cryptococcal capsular antigen test (LCAT) can be used on serum, CSF, or ?urine?
What type of tissue response is seen with cryptococcosis?
Primarily granulomatous
What is the most effective drug for cats with crypto?
What agent do cryptococci develop resistance to?
How long should cryto be treated?
Treatment should be continued until the titer (LCAT) is negative or until 2 months past the resolution of clinical signs.
What is the prognosis for dogs and cats with crypto? What affects prognosis.
Guarded for any dogs with crypto. Good for cats with extraneural disease. Guarded for cats with CNS involvement. FeLV or FIV+ status negatively affects prognosis.
What type of virus is rabies?
ssRNA, neg. sense.
Lyssavirus, Rhabdoviridae family
Is rabies a weenie?
It is susceptible to most disinfectants, but can live a couple of days at room temp, several days in a refrigerated carcass, years at ultralow temps, and 24 hours at -20C
How fast is intraaxonal flow for rabies virus?
What is the incubation period for rabies?
3-8 weeks dog
4-6 weeks cat
up to 6 months
What is the only reliable test for rabies?
direct FA test - requires brain tissue
What signs of encephalomyelitis in brain tissue and meninges are present with rabies infection?
Mononuclear infiltration, perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes or PMN's, lymphocytic foci, negri bodies
What should one do with an unvaccinated dog exposed to rabies?
Euthanize or 6 mos quarantine
What should one do with a vaccinated dog exposed to rabies?
Revaccinate and observe at home 45 days.
What should one do with a healthy, owned dog, cat or ferret that bites someone?
If unprovoked, confine and observe 10 days. Start prophylaxis if unprovoked.
What type of virus is distemper?
Morbillivirus, paramyxovirus family. ss RNA virus.
Where is the distemper virus found in tissues? How does this affect the pathology of the virus?
Viral proteins are incorporated into host cell membranes. Infected cells are susceptible to immune-mediated cytolysis.
How long can distemper virus be shed after infection?
60-90 days
In what type of exudate(s) is CDV abundant in?
Respiratory secretions
What breeds are more susceptible to CDV?
Greyhound, malamute, husky, samoyed, weimeraners
What is the pathogenesis of CDV?
spread by aerosol droplets, invades upper resp. epithelium, multiplies in tissue macrophages and spreads via lymphatics to tonsils and LNs, replication in LNs, spleen, GI epi, and liver by 4-6 days PI (causes fever and lymphopenia), hematogenous spread to many tissues by 9-14 days PI
Describe how CDV spreads to the CNS and the type of lesions it causes there.
virus can enter the epis of the chorid plexus, meninges, 4th ventricle, or ependymal cells. it then spreads to the CSF, then to subependymal areas. produces multifocal lesions: white matter=non-inflammatory demyelination. grey matter: multifocal necrosis and polioencephalomalacia
What systemic signs are seen with CDV?
More than half are subclinical. Others will see resp. signs, fever, lethargy, GI signs, cough, dyspnea
When do CNS signs usually appear with CDV?
1-3 weeks later (after other signs?), but can appear with no systemic signs first.
What other lesions are seen with CDV (other than CNS, resp, and GI)?
Dental-damage to dentin, enamel and roots
Ocular-anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, retinal degeneration, necrosis and detachment
Skin-hyperkeratosis (digital or nasal), pustular dermatitis
What CBC or Chem findings may help in diagnosing CDV?
Most are non-specific, but one may see inclusion bodies in the RBC's, PMN's or monocytes. Hypoglobulinemia will be present in pre- or neonatally infected puppies
Will anti-CDV antibodies be present in the CSF of vaccinated dogs? What about non-neurological distemper?
Which serum antibody titer indicates exposure within the last three weeks?
Which serum antibody titer indicates prior exposure, but not necessarily in the last three weeks?
How soon can ICC detect viral antigens in buffy coat preps? When do these disappear?
2-5 days PI detect. Disappear by 3 weeks PI.
T or F: Virus isolation is easy to preform for CDV.
What is p27?
Core protein detected by FA and ELISA testing for FeLV. It's antigenic, but Abs are non-neutralizing.
What is gp70?
It's the major envelope glycoprotein. Is antigenic and Abs are neutralizing.
What is FOCMA?
Feline oncornavirus cell membrane antigen. Is present on malignant cells. Cats with high anti-FOCMA Abs are tumor resistant.
How is FeLV transmitted?
In saliva - close intimate contact required.
What family is FIV in?
How is FIV transmitted?
Through saliva - usually bite wounds on intact, outdoor males.
What are the three phases of FIV infection?
Acute - fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, enteritis
Latent - can last years
Terminal - weight loss, opportunistic infections, neoplasia
What do FIV serology tests test for?
What test can be used to confirm presence of FIV antibody?
Western Blot
What two drugs can be used to help control FIV?
AZT - reverse transcriptase inhibitor, may prolong asymptomatic phase
Immunoregulin - an immunomodulator, but not proven effective
What type of virus causes FIP?
A coronavirus
What are the two types of feline coronavirus FCoV?
FECV - infects and replicates in enterocytes only
FIPV - replicates in macrophages and spreads
How is the virus spread from cat to cat?
In feces or saliva. It is inhaled or ingested, usually through mutual grooming.
What does FIPV cause?
Immune complex disease
Complement fixation
Endothelial damage -> increased vascular permeability
How many cats are infected with FoCV (high or low prevalence)? How many develop FIP?
Most cats are infected at some time. Less than 10% develop FIP
What age group is most commonly affected by FIP?
Young, under 3 years old
T or F: development of clinical signs associated with FIP may often be stress-related
What signs are seen in the non-effusive (dry) form of FIP?
-pyogranulomatous lesions in various organs
-icterus, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, irregular kidneys, iritis (change in eye color)
-neurologic signs
-75% have hydrocephalus (unlike other feline infectious diseases)
-intestinal disease, large intestine more common
What type of effusion is present with wet form FIP?
***low cellularity, high protein*** pale yellow or pink in color, high specific gravity, sometimes fibrin will clot upon standing.
What is the most consistent finding in cats with FIP?
Albumin remains normal or slightly low, A:G ratio decreases, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia
Is serology useful in diagnosing FIP?
NO!!! Don't do it!
What is seen on histopath with FIP?
Pyogranulomatous vasculitis
What tissues are more commonly affected by toxoplasmosis?
Brain, lung, liver, eye, muscle
How is toxoplasmosis transmitted?
Ingestion of infected tissues, ingestion of oocysts, intrauterine infection (only if infection occurs during pregnancy)
When do cats shed oocysts of toxoplasmosis?
Only during initial infection (1-3 weeks). Do not shed again unless immunosupressed (FIV, chemo, etc.)
What are some clinical signs of Toxoplasmosis in puppies? Older dogs?
Puppies: fever, tonsilitis, vomiting, dyspnea, diarrhea, hepatic necrosis
Older dogs: neurological or muscular disease
What does a CBC show in sick cats with Toxoplasmosis?
Will oocysts be detectable in feces in a toxoplasmosis infected cat?
Only during initial shedding.
What can be seen on radiology or cytology in toxoplasmosis infected cats?
Radiology - diffuse interstitial or alveolar pattern, mild pleural effusion
Cytology - tachyzoites may be found in ascites or pleural fluid
What is the drug of choice for toxoplasmosis?
Should a pregnant woman be worried if her cat has a positive IgG titer or IgM titer for toxoplasmosis.
Only IgM - indicates a newly infected cat that may shed oocysts, but only if woman is toxo negative.
What is Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis caused by, where in the US is it found, and what is the vector?
E. canis or E. chaffensis - found in southwestern US. Transmitted by the brown dog tick.
When is the acute phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis?
Begins after an incubation period of 8-20 days. Lasts 2-4 weeks during which organism multiplies in mononuclear cells and spreads in body.
What pathology happens in the acute phase of canine ehrlichiosis?
Infected cells adhere to the vascular endothelium producing a vasculitis: get hematologic abnormalities assoc w/triggering of immune and coag processes: profound thrombocytopenia, anemia, limb and or scrotal edema, +/- leukopenia
When is the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrliciosis?
Occurs 6-9 weeks PI, and can last years.
What happens in the chronic stage of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis?
Impaired bone marrow production resulting in pancytopenia. Hyperglobulinemia and mild clinical signs sucn as weight loss, bleeding tendencies, secondary bacterial infections, anterior uveitis, retinal hemorrhages, etc.
What is the most common finding in dogs with monocytic ehrlichiosis?
***decreased plateslets***
Also anemia is often seen
In canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, when and where are morulae present?
See on peripheral blood or buffy coat smears, moreulae are only present for the first two weeks and in very low numbers.
What may be seen on a chemistry of a patient with canine monocytic ehrhliciosis?
hypoalbuminemia most of the time due to protein-losing nephropathy due to acute glomerular damage or chronic immune-complex deposition, azotemia, hyperglobulinemia, increased ALT, ALP, bilirubin
What might be seen on a U/A with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis?
hematuria and proteinuria
What is a good way to diagnose canine monocytic ehrilichiosis?
Positive ID of morulae or serology - Indirect IFA is highly sensitive.
What is the drug of choice for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis? What drug is no effective?
Doxycycline to treat for 21 days. Enrofloxacin is NOT effective.
Are there any vaccines available for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis? How does one prevent the disease?
No vaccine, just tick control
What is a big clinical sign with Canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis?
Polyarthritis from neutrophilic inflammation.
What agents cause canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?
E. equi or E. ewingii
Where are morulae found in canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis?
morulae found in neutrophils
What causes Canine Thrombocytic Ehrlichiosis?
What else is this disease known as?
E. platys
"Canine cyclic Thrombocytopenia" - occurs in 10-14 day intervals
What causes atypical Canine Ehrlichiosis? What else does this organism cause?
Also causes potomac horse fever
What clinical signs are seen with atypical canine ehrlichiosis?
Hematologic abnormalities mostly...also nonspecific signs such as lethargy, vomiting, etc.
Are cats susceptible to ehrlichiosis?
Yes, but not as much dogs. E.canis, E.risticii and E. equi (EO's) are main agents.
What agent causes RMSF? What is the vector(s)?
Rickettsia rickettsii
Eastern US vector - american dog tick
Western US vector - wood tick
Both are Dermacentor sp. ticks
What causes Canine Thrombocytic Ehrlichiosis?
What else is this disease known as?
E. platys
"Canine cyclic Thrombocytopenia" - occurs in 10-14 day intervals
What causes atypical Canine Ehrlichiosis? What else does this organism cause?
Also causes potomac horse fever
What clinical signs are seen with atypical canine ehrlichiosis?
Hematologic abnormalities mostly...also nonspecific signs such as lethargy, vomiting, etc.
Are cats susceptible to ehrlichiosis?
Yes, but not as much dogs. E.canis, E.risticii and E. equi (EO's) are main agents.
What agent causes RMSF? What is the vector(s)?
Rickettsia rickettsii
Eastern US vector - american dog tick
Western US vector - wood tick
Both are Dermacentor sp. ticks
How are ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii?
feeding on infected animals or transovarially.
How long do ticks need to be attached to the host to transmit RMSF?
>5-20 hours
Where does R. rickettsii replicate in the host? How does this relate to pathogenesis?
Enters circulatory system and replicates in the endothelial cells. Causes necrotizing vasculitis, which leads to extravasation of fluid and blood cells, edema, hemorrhage, hypotension, shock, activates plateslets and coag cascade.
How long is the incubation period for RMSF?
2-14 days.
What is one of the earliest and most consistent findings in RMSF? When does it occur?
Fever occurs in 2-3 days after tick attachment.
Other than fever, what other type of early lesions develop with RMSF?
Cutaneous lesions including edema and hyperemia of extremities, gangrene of extremities, etc.
What are some major signs of RMSF?
petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, occular abnormalities, epistaxis, melena, hematuria, ***acute renal failure***
What is the duration of RMSF?
Short: 2 weeks
What distinguishing findings are present on a serum chemistry panel with RMSF?
***metabolic acidosis
hypoalbuminemia/proteinemia, azotemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, increased ALP and ALT
Discuss how serology can help diagnose RMSF.
Need to obtain acute and convalescent titers - a four or greater fold increase in titer confirms.
What is the tx for RMSF?
Tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin. Supportive care for shock, coag problems and organ failure as needed.
What agent(s) transmit SPD? What is the vector?
Neorickettsia helminthoeca and Elokomin Fluke Fever agent. Vector is Nanophyetus Salmincola trematode, snails, and fish.
What are some clinical signs of SPD?
Sudden high fever, depression, rapid weight loss, vomiting and progressively bloody diarrhea, death within 7 days if untreated.
How does one diagnose SPD?
Fecal float - operculated eggs in dog's feces 5-8 days after fish ingestion.
Lymph node aspirate to look for rickettsial inclusion bodies - use Giemsa stain to see in mononuclear cells.
How is SPD treated?
supportive care, doxycycline, praziquantel to treat flukes.
How is leptospirosis transmitted?
organism penetration of mucosa. Direct: infected urine, venereal/placental transfer, bite wounds, ingestion of infected tissue
Indirect: exposure to a contaminated environment
What do the clinical signs of leptospirosis resemble?
Tick-born diseases
Are Abs made to the leptospires?
Yes, serum antibodies clear the leptospires from blood and most tissues, but organisms replicate and persist in kidneys.
What is the most common clinical manifestation of leptospirosis? Which serovars are most common with this clinical sign?
Renal disease: canicola and grippotyphosa - organism persists in renal tubular epithelial cells
What is the second most common clinical manifestation of leptospirosis? What serovars are associated with this clinical sign?
Hepatic disease: icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona serovars
Are the majority of lepto cases peracute, acute, subacute or chronic? Which are least common?
Most are chronic. Peracute and acute less common.
What clinical signs are present in subacute lepto cases?
petecchial and ecchymotic hemorrhages
What is seen on CBC and Chem with lepto?
CBC: initial leukopenia, then leukocytosis with left shift
Chem: renal changes - azotemia, ISO abnormalities, hepatic changes - inc. liver enzymes, inc. amylase and lipase
Describe serology findings with lepto.
Initial very high titer or 4-fold increase to diagnose. Uses microscopic agglutination test (MAT), need 2nd and 3rd serum samples in 2-4 week intervals, cross-reactivity among serovars
What treatment is given for lepto?
Penicillins initially, supportive care, then tetracyclines/aminoclycosids/macrolides/fluoroquinolones eliminate the carrier state
Haemobartonella is caused by what organism?
M. haemofelis and M. haemomilutum are for cats, M. haemocanis for dogs
How would a cat contract M. haemofelis?
Blood-sucking arthropods, from mother to kittens, or from blood transfusions.
Describe the phases of M. haemofelis infection
Acute: lasts ~1 month, 1/3 of cats die without tx, PCV fluctuations, immune-mediated damage to RBC's
Recovery: may take >1 month. time until anemia resolves
Carrier phase: clinically normal, but stress may cause relapse
What other disease are M. haemofelis cats often infected with?
50% are FeLV +
What tx is used to treat M. haemofelis?
Doxycycline, enrofloxacin, prednisone, blood products if needed
What is the agent that causes Lyme disease? What is the vector?
the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Vector is Ixodes ticks
How long must a tick be attached to transmit lyme disease?
48 hours.
What is the pathogenesis of Lyme disease?
After tick attachment, organism enters host and spreads to connective tissue, joints, CNS, other.
What clinical signs are seen in dogs with Lyme disease?
***Polyarthritis***, shifting leg lameness, fever, anorexia, lymphadeopathy, general malaise
***renal disease..."lyme nephritis"***
T or F: Canine parvovirus is a true enteric virus.
False. It is a systemic virus with primary GI manifestations.
Where does canine parvovirus replicate?
In the nucleus of rapidly dividing cells (GI epis, lymphoid tissue, bone marrow)
What does CPV-1 cause?
Minute virus of canines causes mild diarrhea of young pups..."fading puppy syndrome"
What breeds are at risk for CPV?
Dobes, Rotts, Staffies, Black Labs, GSD
How is CPV transmitted?
Fecal-oral route...HIGHLY resistant to disinfectants
Describe the pathogenesis of CPV.
Oronasal exposure - virus replicates in lymphoid tissues of oropharynx - viremia 1-5d PI - lymphoid tissues (Peyer's patches) - intestinal crypts 4-7 d PI. lymphocyte = primary infected cell
enteritis - incubation period 5-14 days, virus shedding 3-14 days PI.
What is the most common clinical disease for CPV infection?
Most infections are asymptomatic.
What CBC findings are there with parvoviral enteritis?
SEVERE leukopenia in 85% cases. May see rebound in monocytes followed by neutrophilia.
Is serology useful in diagnosing CPV?
No, most dogs are positive.
Should antidiarrheals be given to a parvo dog?
NO!!! Don't delay transit, gut already hypomotile. Anticoholinergics promote ileus and intussusception
What pseudo-antidiarrheal can be given to a parvo dog?
Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto bismol)
What parts of the intestine are affected by CCV?
The tips of the villi - virus is epitheliotropic.
Is CCV a systemic virus or an enteric virus?
Enteric...NO Viremia!!!
Can cats get CCV?
Yes, but they are asymptomatic.
How is the virus spread among individuals? What months is it more common?
Fecal-oral route. More common in winter months (crowding).
Describe the pathogenesis of CCV.
Oronasal exposure - infects enterocytes of upper 2/3 of villous tips - replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells - NO VIREMIA - enteritis incubation period 1-7 d PI - virus shedding 6-14 d PI
What type of diarrhea is seen with coronaviral enteritis?
Yellow-orange to bloody, fetid. loose to mucoid to watery.
What CBC and Chem findings are there with CCV infection?
CBC often non-remarkable
Serum chem normal or reflects dehydration
How can CCV be diagnosed?
EM or virus isolation of feces.
Serology - 4 fold increase in titer in paired sera samples
Are Abx needed for treatment of CCV?
Not usually, unless severe hematochezia.
What age group does CRV affect?
2d - 6mos
Is CRV a weenie?
No, it's not a weenie! Resistant to disinfectants and environment
Describe the pathogenesis of CRV.
Oronasal exposure - infects and replicates in mature enterocytes (upper 1/3 of villus) - no viremia - enteritis incubation period 1-9d PI - V shedding 1-9d PI (high numbers of virions in feces)
What is synonymous with Feline Panleukopenia?
Feline distemper, Feline Parvovirus, Infectious Feline Enteritis (IFE).
What are the routes of transmissio of FPV?
***in utero transmission much bigger deal in cats than dogs***
orofecal route.
virus shed in all secretions of cat.
What virus causes cerebellar hypoplasia?
In utero infection of FPV. (neurologic form)
What is a major diagnostic tool for FPV?
CBC - severe panleukopenia, primarily neutropenia - lasts 2-4d
Should one give pepto bismol to cats?
Use caution - salicylate toxicity in cats.
What causes botulism?
Ingestion of preformed neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum.
Do cats get botulism?
Describe the pathogenesis of botulism.
Toxin is absorbed from stomach into lymphatics - toxin circulates to the neuromuscular junction of cholinergic nerves - toxin blocks presynaptic release of Ach - causes generalized LMN disease and parasympathetic dysfunction.