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9 Cards in this Set

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Abu Bakr
The first caliph:

He was 59 when he became caliph and died two years later in 634. He was Muhammad's father-in-law. He was chosen by an assembly of tribal leaders in Medina after Muhammad's death. He is remembered for putting down revolts by tribes who renounced Islam after Muhammad's death, and for assembling armies to extend Islam into Syria and Mesopotamia. Appointed Umar as his sucessor.
The second caliph:

A long-time friend and advisor of Muhammad, he was appointed by Abu Bakr. He continued to conquer more lands in the name of Allah, expanding Islam into North Africa. On his deathbed in 644 he named a council to choose the next caliph.
The third caliph:

A long-time friend and advisor of Muhammad, he was made caliph by a council created by Umar. He angered many people by appointing his family members as regional governors. He was murdered in 656 by an angry mob, possibly under Ali's instructions. Civil war broke out after his murder and two people were named caliph: Ali, Muhammad's cousin, and son-in-law(who was quickly murdered), and Muawiya, Uthman's cousin who challenged Ali's right to rule.
the 'fourth' caliph:

Ali was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. It is possible that he helped to plot Uthman's assassination. Civil war broke out when he tried to proclaim himself the new caliph and he was murdered himself by an angry, former supporter. Shiites give him the title "Imam" meaning divinly guided. Muawiya became caliph in 661.
The 'fifth' caliph:

Muawiya was Uthman's cousin and the governor of Syria. He challenged Ali's right to become caliph after Uthman was murdered in 656. Muawiya became caliph in 661.
"sucessor" (in Arabic)

-title given to a series of Muslim administrators and military leaders after Muhammad's death
"the party of Ali" (in Arabic)

A minority of Muslims (10%) who believe that only members of Muhammad's family could be his sucessor. They deny the legitimacy of the first three caliphs. Shiites gave Ali the title "Imam" meaning divinely guided. They believe that the caliph should be more of a spiritual and less of a political advisor. Only in Iran do they make up a majority of the Islamic population.
Sunni Muslims accept the first three caliphs as valid and reject the Shiite idea of Imam believing that everyone has a direct relationship with Allah. They claim to follow the Sunna or customs of the prophet Muhammad. Sunnis make up the majority (84%)of Muslims worldwide.
both believe:
-Allah is the one true god

-The Koran is Allah's word

-Muhammad was Allah's prophet