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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe viral gastroenteritis
1 to 5 days of watery diarrhea with nausea and vomiting, mild fever in contrast to bac gastroenteritis
3 common settings of viral gastro?
sporadic in infants (rotavirus), epidemic in semi closed communities (norwalk virus) and sporadic acute in adults
death especially in children from underdeveloped countries is due to?
dehydration and acidosis
T/F bc of underdeveloped countries, diarrhea is the most prevalent infectious disease related cause of mortality in infants and young children.
important pathogenic genera of reoviruses
orthoreovirus (URT and GI infections, usually asympto), rotavirus (50% of human infantile gastroenteritis, possibly resp infections too) and coltivirus (colorado tick fever transmitted by arthropods)
impportant points of reovirus genome organization.
orthoreovirus has 10 dsRNA mols, rota has 11, most segments are monocistronic, have 3 sizes for the molecules: small, medium, and large
what is the flow of reovirus particle structure?
double layered beast released from cells, can be cleaved to a virion, then can be cleaved to the ISVP which can penetrate cells, and finally the core is reached in the cell
reovirus structure?
icos, non enveloped, double layered capsid
replication of reoviruses occurs where?
in the cytoplasm
how do rotaviruses at one point become triple layered?
they bud into the ER and get an envelope that they lose before cell release
what rotavirus groups are responsible for what disease?
A is pediatric GE, B is seen with adult epidemic GE, C is unclear but infects humans
rotavirus transmission facts?
fecal oral, shed virus prior, during, and after illness, 48 hr incubation, seasonal (likes cooler months, can be inactivated by humidity)
rotavirus pathogenesis in short.
columnar epi cells covering villi of SI, blunt those villis, nonstructural proteins act as enterotoxin promoting influx of Ca into enterocytes, absorption defects, diarrhea
describe immunity to rotavirus.
IgA in the gut is the main guy, by 4 most kids have anti rotavirus antibody, thus immunity to most strains, adults usually will only get asympto infection
describe rotavirus vaccines.
orally administered live attenuated virus was given, but caused intussesception so it was pulled, new vaccines being tested
what disease is norwalk virus mainly associated with?
nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis
what disease is sapovirus normally associated with?
pediatric gastroenteritis
calicivirus genome
pos ssRNA, note see a subgenomic RNA in infected cells too, obviously from the parent genome
random fact: caliciviruses are among the most stable virions, low pH, freezing, heat, and LOW chlorine will not hurt them
moo moos
random fact: norwalk virus is the no 1 food borne cause of gastroenteritis.
what virus is associated with cruise ship outbreaks?
characteristics of norovirus that facilitate spread.
low infectious dose, prolonged asymptomatic shedding, environmental stability, substantial strain diversity, lack of lasting immunity
describe norovirus pathogenesis.
norovirus diagnosis?
mainly clinical and epidemiological, look for vomiting, duration of 12 to 60 hrs, incubation of 24 to 48 hrs, can do Ab staining of RT PCR of stool for outbreak diagnosis
describe norovirus immunity
not long lasting, childhood infection does not protect adult
norovirus control?
best is handwashing, bleach infected fomites, remember drinking water does not have enough chlorine to kill
vaccine for norovirus?
none now, but virus like particles are being studied
random fact: caliciviruses are level 2 bioterrorism agents bc they are so contagious and there is potential for more severe disease
the moops
describe astrovirus disease.
pediatric gastroenteritis, with 3 to 4 day incubation, illness lasts for 3 to 4 days and is a milder diarrhea than rotavirus
describe astrovirus immunity
protective immunity following infection but wanes later in life