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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calcium is found in equal amounts in:
the ECF and ICF
normal calcium level
9-10.5 mg/dl
Ionized (free serum) calcium normal level
4.6-5.6 mg/dl
calcium is the major cation for the:
bones and teeth. important for their development and maintenance
Calcium is found in___ and helps maintain___.
cell membranes
their shape
Calcium is required for:
muscle contraction, necessary for the synaptic release of neurotransmitters for transmission of nerve impulses.
Cardiac and skeletal muscle contractiona are initiated by:
release of calcium
___,___,___, and___ help maintain muscle tone.
calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium
Calcium aids in:
Calcium absorbtion requires a specific protein called___.
calcium absorption is greatest in the___,___, and___ where pH is more acidic and calbindin is present.
ileum, duodenum, and the proximal jejunum
Only___% of calcium is absorbed.
Calcium requires___ for absorption through the intestines, reabsorption in the kidneys, and reabsorption through the bone.
vitamin D
calcium competes with___,___,___,___ and___ for absorption.
zinc, manganese,copper, iron and magnesium
Calcium is excreted in:
the feces, urine, and sweat
Calcium is regulated by:
the parathyroid hormone, thyrocalcitonin, the blood pH, and vitamin D
Causes of hypocalcemia
acute pancreatitis, massive transfussion, vitamin D deficiency, cancer of the bone, decrease in PTH or removal of the parathyroid gland.
Parathyroid hormone is secreted in response to:
a low serum Ca++ level and acts to raise the Ca++ level.
PTH makes the kidneys:
reabsorb Ca++ and excrete phosphate, the kidneys convert vitamin D to an active form which increases the GI absorption of Ca++
PTH releases Ca++ from:
bone storage and makes osteocasts break down bone to release Ca++ into the plasma.
Symptoms of hypocalcemia
confusion, convulsions, insomnia, paraesthesias around the mouth and hands, carpopedal spasm, tetany, hyperreflexia, brittle nails, osteoperosis, periodontal disease, diarrhea, positive chvostek and trousseau signs, cardiac arrythmias
Causes of hypercalcemia
hyperparathyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, adrenal insufficiency, cancers, excessive vitamin D or A intake, Pagets disease, hypophosphatemia, multiple fractures, prolongel immobilization, prolonged use of aluminum containing antacids, acidosis
___ is secreted in response to a high serum Ca++ level and acts to reduce it.
Calcitonin is released by:
the thyroid gland
Calcitonins major effect is to:
inhibit bone resorption, slowing the osteoblastic activity
increases bone uptake of calcium, decreases vitamin D absorption in the GI tract, and causes the kidneys to inhibit calcium reabsorption resultin in increased urinary excretion.
pertaining to the wrist and feet
Symptoms of hypercalcemia
Nausea and vomiting, constipation, confusion weakness, lethargy, ploydipsia, polyuria, dehydration, decreased deep tendon reflexes, bone pain, cardiac arrythmias or arrest
The pH of blood also effects the serum calcium level because:
both calcium and hydrogen compete for binding sites on albumin. With alkalosis calcium binds with albumin the the Ca++ level decreases.(hypocalcemia)
With acidosis:
less Ca++ binds with albumin and the ionized Ca++ level rises(hypercalcemia)