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96 Cards in this Set

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what are the richest and sweetest of all baked products?
cakes
the challenge of making a cake is . . .
create a structure that supports ingredients but remains light and delicate
slight errors in cake mixing result in what?
poor texture and volume
2 mixing formulas for cakes are . . .
1. high-fat or shortened cakes

2. low-fat or foam type cakes
Methods for mixing high-fat cakes are . . .
creaming
2-stage
1-stage with liquid shortening
flour batter
methods for mixing low-fat cakes are . . .
sponge
angel food
chiffon
3 main goals of mixing cake batter . . .
combine all in uniform batter

form and add air cells

develop texture in finished product
When in a rush during mixing, why not just jump to high speed?
air cells don't form well at high speed when creaming fat and sugar, so texture suffers
what are 2 major ingredients in cakes?
fat

water
a uniform mixture of two unmixables is called what?
emulsion
part of the purpose of mixing is to form what with water and fat?
a water-in-fat emulsion
when does curdling occur?
when fat can no longer hold the water in the emulsion

it changes to a fat-in-water mixture
what factors cause curdling?
using wrong type of fat
ingredients too cold
mixing first stage too fast
adding liquids too fast
adding too much liquid
what does the phrase "wrong cold goes fast adding liquids" mean?
these are the causes for curdling:

using the wrong fat
ingredients too cold
doing first stage too fast
adding liquid too fast
adding too much liquid
high-ratio shortenings have emulsifiers that help it hold what?
large amount of water without curdling
Is butter a desirable emulsifier?
No
what ingredient helps batter hold other liquids?
eggs, egg yolks
emulsions are best formed at what temperature of ingredients?
70
flour helps batter absorb what?
liquid
why are air cells important in batters?
for leavening

texture
coarse texture is a result of what?
large irregular air cells
if no chemical leavener is used, what helps leaven?
trapped air from creaming and steam
cold fat (below 60) is too hard to form good air cells, and fat above what temp is too soft?
75
mixing speed should be moderate, or . . .
medium
what does high speed do to a batter?
the friction warms the ingredients too much

not as many air cells form, and those that do are coarse and irregular
what is the right sugar for the creaming method?
granulated sugar
for egg foam cakes like sponge, angel food and chiffon, how do you get air cells?
whipping eggs and sugar - they should be slightly warm (100)

Use high speed first, then medium to retain air cells
what does texture need?
uniform mixing

formation of air cells
mixing affects what?
gluten development
why use cake flour in cakes?
it has little gluten
why is flour added near the end of mixing?
to reduce gluten development
if batter is mixed too long after flour is added or becomes too warm during mixing . . .
cakes may be tough
in 2-stage mixing method, flour is added in the 1st step
true

it is mixed with high-ratio shortening, and the coating action limits gluten development
when baking and cooling cakes, what should you do?
preheat ovens
make sure shelves are level
pans should not touch or cakes will rise unevenly
bake at right temp
if your oven is too hot, what will happen to the cake?
it will hump in the center
if your oven is set too cool, what happens to the cake batter?
poor volume, cake doesn't set fast enough and may fall
if steam is available in your oven, what methods should you use it with in mixing?
creamed

2-stage

steam delays the top crust from forming
what happens if you open door or slam door before a cake is finished rising and is partially brown?
center will crash
how should chiffon and angel food cakes be cooled?
upside down in pans
how do you test for doneness?
shortened cakes shrink from sides
cake is springy in the center
cake tester comes out clean
how long should you cool layer and sheet cakes in the pan before removing?
15 minutes; turn out while slightly warm
onto what should you turn out layer cakes
racks to finish cooling
to turn out sheet cakes . . .
sprinkle lightly with granulated sugar
set cake board of top of cake
set empty sheet pan on top, bottom side down
invert both
remove top pan
peel parchment
what is another name for the creaming method?
conventional method

used for high-fat cakes
how does butter influence texture in cakes?
melts in the mouth; shortening doesn't
butter influences texture because . . .
it melts in the mouth, shortening doesn't
in creaming recipes, use regular shortening, not . . .
emulsified shortening (high-fat plastic) because AP shortening has better creaming ability
you can substitute an equal weight of butter and shortening . . .
false

butter has water
what was the 2-stage method developed for?
to use with high-ratio plastic shortening

Ex: Devil's Food Cake

when you have a large percentage of sugar
high-ratio cakes have a large percentage of sugar and are made with more liquid than creaming method cakes, pouring more freely
true
2 stage gets its name because the liquids are added in 2 stages, true or false?
true

step one: blend dry ingredients with shortening

step two: add eggs/liquids in stages
creaming method for high-fat cakes calls for what?
creaming the fat and sugar about 8-10 minutes
one-stage mixing method is used with what type of fat?
liquid shortening

Called "one step" because it's so effective at emulsifying and spreading through batter
for liquid shortening method, adding the liquid ingredients to the bowl first does what?
you have less chance for moistened flour to coat the bottom and sides of the bowl.

Mix on low, high, then medium to develop air cells
what is a palette knife for?
spreading, smoothing icings and fillings
what is an offset palette knife for . . .
lets you spread batters and creams inside pans
what is a serrated knife for?
cutting cakes, splitting cake layers horizontally
what are icing screens or grates?
open mesh screens for holding cakes being iced such as with fondant
what is a turntable for?
it's a pedestal with a flat rotating top for decorating cakes
what is an icing comb for?
used for applying grooved or ridged patterns to sides of iced cakes
what is a plastic or steel scraper for?
the flat edge makes smooth sides on a cake
what are brushes used for?
remove crumbs from cake
to apply dessert syrups
to glaze surfaces
describe a sugar dredger
like a large salt shaker for dusting cakes with confectioners' sugar
what are cake rings or Charlotte rings for?
cakes assembled with soft fillings like Bavarian creams
what are the 2 most important piping tips?
plain

star
when do you use a plain tip for piping?
for writing
making lines
beads, dots
star tip is used when in piping?
rosettes
shell borders
stars
other borders
how is the rose tip shaped?
slit opening wider at one end
how is a ribbon tip shaped?
ridged on one side
how is a St. Honore tip shaped?
round with a tip
what are two methods for making decorations when piping?
contact method - for vertical sides or varying thickness

drop string method, aka falling method (one inch from surface)
the contact method is used with what icing?
buttercream
what does "mouselline" mean?
light, airy

to lighten with egg whites
sugar slows what process?
egg protein coagulation by preventing proteins from unfolding
dilution of a batter using milk, sugar or cream makes it more difficult for what to happen?
proteins to bump into each other and bond, reducing the risk of overcoagulation
what is the sponge method?
warm eggs slightly
whip eggs and sugar
fold in remaining ingredients, being careful not to deflate
what's the method for making frangipan?
break up almond paste
add sugar, speed 1
add butter, pliable, room tempish
sift flour
add eggs
add flour
spread with warm spatula for final smoothing
what's the process for a Battenburg Cake?
break up almond paste
add powdered sugar, speed 1
add whole eggs, then yolks
make meringue (speed 3)
fold flour and meringue in thirds into batter
add melted butter and make sure it isn't hot
don't overbeat the meringues
how many layers thick are petit fours?
3-5 layers, 1 1/2 inches high
what is almond paste made of?
ground almonds
what gets added first in making frangipan?
almond paste
sugar
butter
eggs
flour
what method is the frangipan mixing method?
creaming
what method is the Battenburg Cake?
separated egg sponge
when making a genoise, how many eggs should you plan for?
1 egg for 2 people
what are the 2 mixing methods for sponge cake?
add all eggs at once

separate eggs, fold back together
what are the different types of petit fours?
au sec (dry)
glace (glazed)
variety (various small bites)
plain
tarts may resemble pies but are more closely related to . . .
European pastries
tarts are usually less than one inch thick, true or false?
true
what two doughs are good for tarts?
pate brisee

short dough
why is short dough often used for individual tartlets?
It can be harder to handle in a large size.
what are the most popular fruits used in tarts?
apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, cherries
there are 2 basic groups of sugars: simple (monosaccharides) and . . .
complex (disaccharides)
the carbohydrates group includes sugar and what else?
starch
are starches mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides?
polysaccharides
very fine or ultrafine sugars are also called what sugar?
caster

can support higher quantities of fat and are prized for cakes and cookies because they make a more uniform batter
in pastry cream, how much flour is needed to have the same thickening power as cornstarch
twice as much