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30 Cards in this Set

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carinomas?
80% of all CAs, arise from endodermal or ectodermal tissue, colon, breast, prostate,lung, skin, glands
leukemias?
tumor of hematopoietic cells, proliferate as single cells
lymphomas?
hematopoietic in origin, proliferate as tumor masses
sarcomas?
derived from mesodermal connective tissues, bone, fat, cartilage
waht virus is adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with?
human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)
what virus is Kaposi's sarcoma associated with?
human herpes virus-8, HIV-1
what virus is cervical carcinoma associated with?
HPV
what virus are liver carcinomas associated with?
hep B virus
what virus is Burkitt's lymphoma associated with?
Epstein-Barr virus
Ca cells have decreased requirements of ?
growth factors and serum (blood)
in a healthy person: which two genes are balanced?
oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
what is the function of bcl-2?
suppressor of apoptosis
what is the function of p53?
phosphoprotein that inhibits formation of small cell lung ca and colon ca
dominant genetic damage found in CA cells includes:
proto-oncogenes
recessive genetic damage found in CA cells includes:
tumor suppressors, growth suppressors,recessive oncogenes
what 3 tumor suppressor genes are turned off in metastic colon CA?
APC, DCC, p53
what cellular proliferation oncogene is turned on in metastic colon CA?
K-ras
leukemias develop in which two lineages?
lymphoid and myeloid
which type of leukemia has much more favorable outcomes?
chronic-arise in mature cells and develop slowly;seen in adults
CLL chronic lymphoid leukemia
CML chronic myeloid leukemia
in which population are acute leukemias more treatable?
children
which tumor antigens do not occur on normal cells?
TSTAs (tumor specific transplantation Ags)
TATAs (tumor-associated transplantation Ags) more common
what are the four categories of tumor antigens?
1) Ags encoded by genes exclusively expressed by tumors
2) Ags encoded by variant forms of normal genes that have been altered by mutations
3) Ags normally expessed only at certain stages of differentiaton or only by certain differentiation lineages
4) Ags that are overexpressed n particular tumors
where are oncofetal tumor Ags found?
on CA cells and normal fetal cells
which two oncofetal tumor Ags appear later in life on CA cells and are recognized as non-self?
AFP (alpha fetoprotein)
CEA (carcinoembryonic Ag)
which TATAs are oncofetal type Ags are associated with human melanomas?
MAGE-1 (40%)
MAGE-3 (75%)

others (BAGE, GAGE-1, 2)
a significant portion of glioma cell lines, breast tumors, head/neck carcinomas express??
MAGE
What is the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome?
genetic defect causing marked impairment of NK cells and an associated increase in certain types of CA
what is anti-tumor activity of macrophages mediated by?
lytic enzymes, TNF alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
what do tumor cells secrete a lot of?
GM-CSF which activates dendritic cells near the tumor which stimulates to present tumor Ag to Th and CTL-Ps
Monoclonal Abs may be conjugated with what to increase their efficacy?
immunotoxins:
toxins, chemical agents, radioactive particles