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40 Cards in this Set

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The female breast extends from the ____ down to the ____ rib, and from the ___ across to the ____
1. from the clavicle and 2nd rib down to the 6th rib
2. From the sternum to the midaxillary line
The axillary tail of the breast tissue is called the ___
tail of spence
In what two ways can findings in the female breast be described?
Quadrants
Clock from nipple and cm from center
The uneven texture of breast tissue can be normal, termed ___
physiologic nodularity
Lymphatics from most of the breast drain toward ____
the axilla
Lymph drains from the central axillary nodes to the _____
infraclavicular and supraclavicular nodes
Define galactorrhea.
inappropriate discharge of milk-containing fluid.
When is galactorrhea considred abnormal?
If it occurs >6mos after childbirth or cessation of breast-feeding
The most common palpable masses of the breast in women ages 15-25 is ___
fibroadenoma - fine, round, mobile, non-tender
In women between 25-50, ____ are breast masses that may be soft to firm, round, mobile, and may be tender.
Cysts
____ are breast masses described as "nodular and ropelike"
Fibrocystic changes
___ masses may be irregular, stellate, firm, not clearly delineated
cancerous
In women over 50, palpable masses are ___
cancer until proven otherwise
Risk of breast cancer ____ with age, and the lifetime risk for women is ___
1. increases
2. 1 in 8
Non-modifiable risk factors for breast cancer include:
- age, family hx, age at first full-term pregnancy, early menarche, late menopause, breast denisty.
Breast-feeding _____ risk of breast cancer.
decreases
Breast mammography is controversial in ages ____ but recommended ____
controversial 40-50 yrs

Recommended annualy age 50+
How often should clinical breast exam be performed?
Every 3 years in ages 20-40, annually ages 40+
Describe risk factors for breast cancer:
- previous breast cancer
- affected mother or sister
- biopsy with atypical hyperplasia
- age
- early menarche
- late menopause
- late or no pregnancies
- previous radiation to chest wall
Flattening of the normally convex breast suggests ___
cancer
What is the difference between nipple inversion and nipple retraction?
Inversion - pointing inward but can be corrected when stimulated

Retracted - pulled back by underlying mass/ cancer
Upon performing a breast exam, you note tender cords. You should consider what diagnoses?
- mammary duct ectasia
What signs in the nipple would suggest underlying cancer?
thickening of the nipple and loss of elasticity
Define gynecomastia.
glandular enlargement (abnormal) of breast tissue in men
How can you differentiate between fat enlargement and gynecomastia of the male patient?
Gynecomastia involves palpable glandular tissue
The term used to describe a sweat gland infection is ___
hidradenitis suppurativa
A patient presents with darkly colored, velvety axillary skin. This is called ____ and (is/is not) concerning.
1. acanthosis nigricans
2. is, one form is associated with internal malignancy
Milky discharge unrelated to a prior pregnancy and lactation is called ___
nonpuerperal galactorrhea
What are causes of nonpuerperal galactorrhea
hypothyroid, pituitary prolactinoma, dopamine agonists,
A patient presents with spontaneous bloody discharge from the right nipple. What should you consider?
Intraductal papilloma, ductal carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease of the breast.
In the patient with a previous mastectomy, what signs would suggest a recurrence of breast cancer?
masses, nodularity, change in color, inflammation (especially inthe incision line)
A 20 year old patient presents with a single, round, frm, and well delineated R breast mass. It seems to be mobile and is not tender. Her nipple and areola appear normal... what do you suspect?
Fibroadenoma
____ occur in women ages 30-50, are round, soft, well delineated and mobile masses that may be tender.
Cysts
___ occur in women ages 30-90, and may be singular or multiple hard, immobile nodules. They are not easily delineated and may present with nipple retraction.
Cancer
Describe the difference between fibroadenoma, cysts, and cancer in:
a) retraction
b) tenderness
c) mobility
d) shape
a) only present in cancer
b) Cysts may be tender, others usually nontender
c) Cancer is fixed, others mobile
d) Fibroadenoma: round, disclike or lobular
Cyst: round
Cancer: irregular or stellate
Non-malignant causes of retraction of the nipple are:
fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia
Describe 6 visible signs of breast cancer:
1. retraction signs
2. abnormal contours (loss of convexity)
3) dimpling
4. nipple retraction and deviation
5. Edema of the skin
6. Paget's Disease of the nipple
In ____, starts as a scaly eczema like lesion that may weekp, crust, or errode. It continues to dermatitis of the areola and erosion of the nipple.
Paget's disease of the nipple
A patient presents with inflammation, with small dimples and an "orange" appearance to the R breast. This is called ___ and suggests ___
1. Peau d'Orange
2. Inflammatory breast CA
Another term for the suspensory ligaments of the breast is ____
Cooper's Ligaments