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17 Cards in this Set

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A ceremonial feast used to display rank and prosperity in some Northwest Coast tribes of Native Americans
What is a Potlatch? p.441
A ceremony giving food, drink, and gifts to community
An early Native American people who live in the Amerivan Southwest. They lived as cliff dwellers inhabiting mesas or shallow coves in sheer walls of canyons.
Who were the Anasazi? p. 443
Inhabited the 4 corners region where states of Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico meet.
Anasazi (AD 900s) lived in these villages of large, apartment-style compounds made of stone & adobes/sun-baked clay.
What is a Pueblo? p. 443.
The largest Anasazi type ______ began in AD900 and was called _______ Benito.
The last Mound-Builder culture from AD 800 until arrival of Europeans; the Adena built the huge earthen mounds in Eastern Great Lakes Region as burial sites for their dead containing copper and stone artifacts
What is the Mississippian Culture? p. 443-4
Ex. Great Serpent Mound near Hillsboro, OH for religious ceremonies
A group[ of tribes who formed a political alliance to ensure protection of their tribal leaders spoke related languagess.
Who were the Iroquois? p.444
In late 1500's, the newly formed Iroquois League included the Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, Orandaga, Cayuga, and Seneca.
A natural object used by an individual, clan, or group to identify itself. Helped define certain behaviors
sacred relationships among groups symbolic of family.
What is a Totem? p. 445
Totem symbols could be on maks, boats and poles in front of howed
The Maya built this cit in N. Guatemala betw. bew. AD 250 & 950. Other important sites were Copan, Palengue, Uxmal and Chichen Itza
Where is Tikal? p. 446.
Most cities feartured pyramids , temples, elaborate stone carvings, independent city-states, ruled by a God-King and centers of religious ceremonies & trade
A symbolic picture used as part of a writing system; carving messages in stone.
What are Glyphs? p. 448.
Mayan writing includes some 800 glyphs.
A book with pages that can be turned as in a modern day book; Maya used bark & paper books to record historical events.
What is a Codex? p. 448
Ex. the Popol Vuh tells Mayan story of creation
A green/black volcanic glass found in the Valley of Mexico and used to make razor sharp weapons.
What is Obsidian? p. 453.
Teotihuacan's most valuable trade item.

Means "Feathered Serpent" A God of the Toltecs and other MesoAmerican peoples.
Who was Quetzalcoatl? P.453.
The Toltec ruler Topiltzin and the god ___________ were believed to return one day bringing light and peace. The Aztecs thought Cortes was this God.
An association of city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan which led to the formation of the Aztec Empire.
What was the Triple Alliance?
p. 454.
Increased power of Aztecs and gained control over most of Mexico
In 1502, an Aztec ruler crowned Emperor who weakened the empire under his leadership due to opposition to increased tribute & sacrifices.
Who was Montezuma II?
p. 456
Montezuma II tried to correct his policies but resentment continued and ominous predictions of the future caused instability.
In AD1438, the 1st Incan Kingdom rulerwho conquered all of Peru and neighboring lands. By AD1500 included 2500 miles along west coast of S.A. called their empire "Land of the Quarters"
Who was Pachacuti?
p. 459.
This Incan Ruler governed an Empire of 80 Provinces = 16 million people in Peru.
An extended family group which undertook tasks too big for a single family. Ex. were bldg. irrigation canals, cutting agriculure terraces in mtns., et. al
What was the Ayllu?
p. 460.
A type of communal group of extended family members who completed large projects for their government.
Labor tribute the Inca demanded of their subjects.
All able-bodied citizens worked for the state a certain number of days per year. (i.e., public works projects, state farmlands or crafts work production)
What is Mita? p. 461.
Labor tribute required by the Incan Government.
A set of knotted strings used to record data; an Incan accounting device for recording numerical information.
What is Quipu?
p. 461.
The knots and positions on string and colors indicated numbers and the type of things counted. ex. yellow/gold, red/warriors , etc.